The Distortion of Islamic Doctrine
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– Observation of a Typical Wahhabi/Salafi Congregational Prayer
– The Supremacy of ’Asabiyyah (solidarity) in Old Arabia
– Jahiliyah – Reference to the Ill-Natured Pre-Islamic Tribal
– Samahatul-Islam, The Fabric of Ease, Kindness and Graceful Human Relational and Charitable Doctrines of Islam
– No compulsion, no authority over belief
– Foraging Bigotry and Extremism: Twisting the Meaning of Certain Verses to Insinuate Bigotry
– The Enemies of Woman
– Author’s Experience
– The Great Authority Interpreters of the Holy Qur’an Interpretation of the Word Awliya’
– Other Evidence of Bigotry
– Al-Walaa and Al-Barra Principle (loyalty and friendship vs. disavowal and enmity)
– The Natural Feelings of Love and Hate
– The Account of the “Disavowal and Enmity” V
– Love Toward Certain Disbelievers
– The Qur’an Does Not Contradict Itself
– Muslims Permitted to Marry Christians and Jews
– Offensive Are the Acts of Excessiveness in Religion (ghulu) and the Twisting of the Words of the Qur’an
– Is Wearing a Head Cover and Robes for Men (Thawb) Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition)
– Ritual’s Intent Versus Ritual’s Formation
– The Salafi/Wahhabi Systems of Restrictions and Denials
– Spiritually and Mercifully Dry Rigid
– Inception of the Wahhabi Creed
– Exporting Hatred
– The Bigger Picture
– Salafi/Wahhabi Carnage
– Inducing Egypt’s Coptic and Muslim Animosity
– Global Politician on Wahhabi History in Egypt
– A Brief Sample of Qutb’s Belief and Teachings
– Sayyed Qutb Resonant Abdul Al-Wahhab’s Oratory
– Orientation of the Muslim Brotherhood and the Delusion of Establishing an Islamic State (Khilafa)
– Armed Groups Form of Destabilization
– High Ranking Salafi Cleric Urges an Ethnic Destructive Jihadi War in Syria
– Recruiting Salafi/Wahhabi Jihadists to Fight in Syria
– Armed-civilian’s “Jihadi” Wars Vs. the Salafi/Wahhabi Crusades
– No Soul Shall be Taken Without a Due Process
– Criminalizing Bandar ben Sultan, Saudi Arabia Chief of Intelligence (July 2012 to December 2013)
– Salafis Slay Muslim Spiritual Leaders in Russia
The Distortion of Islamic Doctrine
Although the following article touches on the subject of extremism, negativism and hatred in the Salafi/Wahhabi creed, the author excludes those who practice traditional Islam and moderation, promote peace and mercy for all people, and are faithful to Islam’s genuine message of mercy for all, caring for humanity and spirituality.
This article discusses the dangerous epidemic of extremism and savagery facing the Muslim Ummah (nations) today, and answers the inquiry of whether Islam or Wahhabi/Salafi creed is responsible for the bigotry and violence? The Wahhabi/Salafi creed set a precedent for modern extremists. It is my belief that the problem of “Islamic” violence is an ideological one evolved from the twisting of Islamic doctrines to serve the Salafi/Wahhabis and other extremists’ sociopolitical motives.
Several examples will be presented showing the meandering of the Islamic doctrines and Qur’anic verses by the Salafi/Wahhabi leaders. As long as this deviant ideology of extremism continues to exists, the cycle of violence and distruction will continue to grow. An approach in treating this adulterated ideology at its roots is essential. I quote the late Grand Mufti of Syria, Sheik Ahmad Kuftaro saying: “A good doctor is the one who treats the ailment from its root causes, not just superficially.” Likewise, “When the weeds are wacked out by a wacker, they will grow back, only when the weeds are uprooted, they will cease to grow.” (Yusuf Hamza)
The falsity of extremes, denial and radicalism are therefore clearly outlined herein, and the Islamic ideals toward a bright future, safer and peaceful living, are thus illustrated.
Observation of a Typical Wahhabi/Salafi Congregational Prayer
In the West, at some congregational prayers or ceremonial speeches, one gets the idea that ‘Islam’ possesses a culture of denial, bigotry and hatred, conflicting the true teachings of Islam in this regard. In America, where Muslims make up less than one percent of the population, there are some ‘religious leaders’ (Imams) that preach intolerance, dislike and extreme aversion against the vast majority of the people surrounding them.
The terms (kaffereen), infidels, (mushrikeen) making associates to God, (najas), filthy and (zanadeeq), heretics, with distasteful tones, not to mention negations toward women and the condoning of western traditions, are some of the negations one often hears. Such terms insinuate hatred, disgust, distaste and antagonism towards those who are non-Muslims and even Muslims, but disagree with their belief.
While the mainstream Muslim majority and their leaders in America are engaged in interaction with their surrounding communities, the improper preaching of the few, brush-off the non-Muslims, and instigate not only hatred, but also incite isolation of Muslims from the rest of the communities.
New and layman Muslims, and the youth are often the primary victims of this culture. Youth, bursting with energy, can easily be manipulated into violence. What is more appalling than preaching hate and seclusion is that the Wahhabi creed permits its adherents to wage actual war against Muslims, accusing them of being either heretics in a twisted monotheistic belief or apostate.
Prayers, including the congregational ones are means for bringing warm feelings of God, His mercy and compassion towards the creations, and for the spiritual growth and blessings. In the example above, prayers became closer to being tools for preaching dislike, disapproval, the ill valuation of people and the vast mercy of Allah toward His creations. Such preaching can only blossom loss of life, destruction and agony–far from the prayer’s purpose of connecting with God, experiencing tranquility, and perpetuating compassion and peace.
For many decades, this unfortunate trend of preaching, has become a norm for many Wahhabi communities that, in time, Islam turns to be a faith of negations and denial. In fact, negativism against all, other than Wahhabis, could have been entrenched in the Wahhabi adherents since the creed was founded in 1783, and that Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab may very well be called the “father of negativism and denial.” Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhab’s extreme negation philosophies exceeded anyone before or after him. Aside from considering everyone who does not approve of his philosophy as Kafer (infidel), he invented the ten nullifiers of Islam (http://www.islamic-study.org/who-is-isis-isis-formulation). No one in the entire history of Islam conceived of such denial rules.
The topic of the distortion of Islamic doctrine can be more appreciated by understanding the nature of certain cultures of Arabia prior to the advent of Islam that may have a direct effect on nature of the individuals implicated in this topic and discussion. The terms to be reviewed are ‘asabiyyah and jahiliyyah.
The Supremacy of ’Asabiyyah (solidarity) in Old Arabia
In most of old Arabia, the nomads did not have much of a desire for religious life, instead the tribe and its values were sacredly held to. ‘Assabiyyah, a Bedouin spirit, grew in the pre-Islamic tribal theater as a result of the difficult and harsh life in the often resource-less and vast desert. Survivability in such a miser arduous ecosystem induced what was known as Ghazw, acquisition raids to sustain life due to the lack of food. Typical Ghazw targets were life stock, feeds and any free grabs. Henceforth, ‘asabiyyah became central to the tribe’s existence. Whatever the tribal leader says, right or wrong, goes. Everyone must blindly and recklessly defend and honor the tribe.
Karen Armstrong in her book, “Muhamad a Prophet for our Time,” defines ‘asabiyyah and explains how the Prophet Muhammad managed to overcome such a conflict-causing culture. She explained:
Tribal solidarity (‘asabiyyah) encouraged bravery and selflessness,
but only within the contexts of the tribe. There was no concept of
universal human rights. A Bedouin felt responsible merely for his
blood relatives and confederacies. He had no concern for outsiders,
whom he regarded as worthless and expandable. If he had to kill them
to benefit his own people, he felt no moral anguish and wasted no
time in philosophical abstractions or ethical considerations. Since
the tribe was the most sacred value, he backed it, right or wrong.
Karen Armstrong, Muhamad a Prophet for our Time, HarperCollins Publishers, New York, NY 2007.
Imagine what happens when ‘asabiyyah is casted against a belief instead of a tribe? Nothing less than an epidemic of catastrophe and destruction, could be one of the ansewrs. In such case, the opinions of the belief authority substitute the tribal leader, and the belief system substitutes the tribe. While tribal ta’ssub (action verb of ‘asabiyah) is limited to a tribe, religious ta’assub has no limits, and it can radically impact the entire world.
This is why religious ta’assub is far more dangerous and destructive, and, invariably must be treated. As will be seen later, religious ta’assub transgresses all legitimate and authentic limits. It often blinds people’s sight, closes their mind and seals off their hearts. Consistently, the Divine words of God in the Qur’an or the teachings of Prophet Muhammad stand no ground and are simply overruled.
Jahiliyah – Reference to the Ill-Natured Pre-Islamic Tribal Culture
The second term to be illuminated is Jahiliyah. The Jahiliyah term in the Islamic theology is often used to reflect Arabia’s social antagonistic culture prior to the coming of Islam, and thus its eradication after it. Regarding this term, Karen Armstrong in her book, Muhamad a Prophet for our Time, states:
The chief voice of the Kaferun [polytheist, disbelievers] was jahiliyyah. Muslims have traditionally used this term to refer to the pre-Islamic period in Arabia and so it is usually translated “the Time of Ignorance.” But although the root JHL has some connotations of “ignorance,” its primary meaning is “irscibility”: an acute sensitivity to honor and prestige; arrogance, excess, and above all, a chronic tendency to violence and retaliation. Jahili people were too proud to surrender to Islam…. The Muslims called Abu l-Hakam [the Wise One], their chief enemy, “Abu Jahl” [the Jahil One,] not because he was ignorant of Islam—he understood it too well—but because he fought Islam arrogantly, with blind, fierce, and reckless passion. [in brackets mine]
Prophet Muhammad wanted the Muslims to be rational, “serene and tranquil, and should never fall prey to the impetuous rage and vengeful fury of jahiliyyah.” On several occasions, Prophet Muhammad took drastic measures in avoiding a jahili rage blowup, even among the newly adherents to Islam. For example, during one of an expeditions’ resting at an oasis, two boys, one from Ansar (Medinan Muslims) and the other from Muhajereen (Meccan Muslims) got into a quarrel over who would be the first to use the water. No sooner, the jahili ’asabiyyah call was erupted by the boys, each one yelling out for his group’s defense.
Seizing such a jahili break out, the head of the hypocrites, Ibn Abi Salul, fueled the situation with a flammable provoking foul language intended to harm the Prophet and the Muslims. But no sooner, the Prophet learned of the vendetta, he turned it off, ordering the entire expedition to move on immediately to Medina without any further stop. By doing so, he left no chances for the fury to erupt and allowed for anger to cool down. With high zeal, he called upon the boys and the Muslims to cast-off Jahiliya saying, “Why the Jahiliyah cry? Abandon it, it is rotten.” Bukhari
‘Assabayah and jahiliyah facilitated transient wars that lasted for generations, harboring unending conflicts and violent feuds among the Bedouin tribes. Are the reckless, destructive and barbaric acts of ISIS and extremists since the inception of Wahhabism anything less than reproductions of ‘asabiyah and jahiliyah?
Samahatul-Islam, The Fabric of Ease, Kindness and Graceful Human Relational and Charitable Doctrines of Islam
Before speaking about disgust, hatred and extremism, conducted by some “Muslims,” in the name of Islam, it is necessary to introduce the qualities of this peaceful faith that makes it global, warm, and appealing to all.
Most mainstream Muslims grew up learning about what is known as “Samahatul-Islam:” the fabric of peace and mercy; moderation as to excesses (ghulu); easiness as to difficulty and hardship; positivism and optimism as to denial and pacifism; ration as to ta’assub (arrogance, absurdity and insanity); the variety of ways to accomplish an act of worship as to just one strict way; acceptance of others, and the human relational and charitable criteria. These are some of the many qualities one finds in the work of “Samahatul-Islam.” Related to our issue of bigotry and violence, only mercy and the human relational and charitable characteristics of Islam are highlighted.
Contrary to ISIS’ brutal crimes, and the slaughter of human beings, Islam elegantly cherishes relational and charitable beliefs, including, the sacredness and sanction of the souls, the recognition of all people as fellow human beings, forcing no one to take up Islam, policing no one for their belief, and having mercy, care and compassion for all God’s creations. Every Muslim has duly charitable obligations to family, relatives, neighbors, friends, communities and nations. A reflection on a few of the Qur’anic verses about these principles follows.
– All people are equal; the best of them are the most righteous
O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female,
and made you peoples and tribes (lita’arafu), so that you may know
and deal with one another in kindness. Indeed, the most noble of you
in the sight of Allah is the most righteous of you. Indeed,
Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. Qur’an 49:13
This verse lays out the standards for peaceful, cooperative coexistence of all people and all nations. The wordta’arafu is interpreted as “learning about each other for the purpose of collaboration to build and beautify living.” The ‘collaboration’ applies to all aspects of life and is limitless. It can be in diplomacy, commerce, exchange of resources, technology, industry, agriculture, environmental protection, and in all other walks of life. The ‘learning’ includes: social customs, natural resources, technology, industry, agriculture, and other environmental elements common to all people.
– A specialized relationship with the People of the Book, the Jews and the Christians (for receiving the earlier scriptures that Islam confirms)
Consider the subsequent Qur’anic verses in this respect.
Say, [O believers], we have believed in Allah and what has been
revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael
and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants and what was given to Moses
and Jesus and what was given to the prophets from their Lord.
We make no distinction between any of them, and
we are muslims [in submission] to Him. Qur’an, 2:136
Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of
religion and do not expel you from your homes from being righteous and
acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly. Qur’an 60:8
And indeed, among the People of the Book are those who believe in
Allah and what was revealed to you and what was revealed to them,
[being] humbly submissive to Allah. They do not exchange the verses of
Allah for a small price. Those will have their reward with their Lord.
Indeed, Allah is swift in account. Qur’an 3:199
Say, “O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable
between us and you – that we will not worship except Allah and not
associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead
of Allah.” But if they turn away, then say, “Bear witness that we are
Muslims [submitting to Him]. Qur’an 3:64
And dispute not with the People of the Book except with means
better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict
wrong and injury, and say, “We believe in that which has been revealed to
us and revealed to you. And our God and your God is one; and
we are Muslims [in submission] to Him. Qur’an 29:46
No compulsion, no authority over belief.
ISIS’ indiscriminate killing of people for their belief, the destruction of property, the rape of girls, the burning of people, theft and robbery, and transgression against all human beings is not per Islam’s teachings, but is per the teachings of their Salafi/Wahhabi creed. The noble and graceful principles of Islam regarding the permissibility of different beliefs are clear. Following are some examples.
a) Islam teaches, “there is no compulsion in matters of faith.”
Conviction and whole-hearted acceptance can only make a true belief. The Qur’an makes this principle as vibrant as can be, it states:
There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion.
The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever
disbelieves in Taghut (tyranny and injustice) and believes
in God has grasped the most trustworthy handheld with no break in it.
And God is Hearing and Knowing. Qur’an 2:256
b) Islam imposes no authority over people to practice faith.
The Qur’an clearly instructs Prophet Muhammad not to be an authority upon people to insure their religious practice. He is only obligated to deliver, not to police and monitor. The following verses affirm this claim. Allah (SWT) said:
If it had been Allah’s plan, they would not have taken false gods:
but We made you not one to watch over their doings, nor are you
set over them to dispose of their affairs. Qur’an 6:107
But if they turn away, thy duty is only to preach the clear Message. Qur’an 16:82
Whoever pays heed unto the Apostle pays heed unto God, thereby; and as for
those who turn away – We have not sent you [oh Muhammad] to be their keeper,
governing their activities. Qur’an 4:80
Proofs have come unto you from your Lord, so whoso sees,
it is for his own good, and whoso is blind is blind to his own harm.
And I am not (here) to watch over your doings. Qur’an 6:104
Al-Fakhr al-Razi in his Grand Tafseer, about the above verse (4:80), states: Allah tells Muhammad (PBUH) that ‘his job is not to force people to follow him. He is merely to preach the message he has been given.’ Understandably, in the same manner the Prophet Muhammad is not authorized to police people, so do his follows. In the light of the above verses, how could one reconcile ISIS practice in forcing religion over people? Is ISIS following Islam or the creed of Salafism/Wahhabism?
For more Qur’anic verses on ‘no authority over people’s belief,’ see verses, 16:35, and 13:40.
c) God created people with faculty of choosing different beliefs.
The Qur’an clearly outlines God’s will in permitting people to choose their faith and creed. Allah (SWT) said:
And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed – all of them entirely.
Then, [O Muhammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers? Qur’an 10:99
Freedom of faith is one of the foremost principles of Islam. See the “Five Primary Principles Defining Islam.”
d) The message of Islam came as a mercy to the world.
And We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], except as a mercy to the worlds. Qur’an, 21:107
O mankind, there has come to you instruction from your Lord and a healing
for what is in the breasts (hearts) and guidance and mercy for the believers. Qur’an 10:57
The attributes of mercy of God, and of the Prophet Muhammad are discussed in the article: “Five Primary Principles Defining Islam.” Prophet Muhammad’s entire life is a reflection of his merciful and compassionate nature. His mercy was manifest even in war: no elders, women, children, and no combatants be killed; no burning of crops and trees, nevertheless people; no destruction of monasteries and temples….. These are just a few of the ethics of Islam during actual war. See The Qur’anic Concepts of the Ethics in Warfare.
e) Allah (SWT) rewards those who do good.
The Qur’an states:
Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or
Sabeans – those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did
righteousness – will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear
will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.” Qur’an 2:6
f) Sanctity of the human soul.
The soul is part of the divinity that Allah endowed people with. Allah imposed safeguards in its protection. Allah (SWT) said:
Whoever slew a person unless for a murder or for spreading mischief in
the land – it is as if he slew the whole of mankind. And whoever
saves a life – it is as if he has saved the life of the whole mankind. Qur’an 5:32
Verse 5:32 emphasizes the sanctity of the soul so much so that a crime of slaying one soul in the sight of God is like slaying the whole of humanity. On the other hand, saving the life of one soul in the sight of God is like saving the entirety of mankind. Soul protection is not limited to wars or natural catastrophes, but can include all safety regulations in medicine, traffic, industry and other environmental regulations.
The above and other spiritual, social, and political knowledge and guidance contained in the Qur’an are not only a mercy to Muslims, but to all of God’s creation. The mercy is embodied in many ways and forms: building, not destroying life, protection of the soul, racing for doing pious work; establishing societies based on values and ethics, even when resorted to war, there is war ethics; mercy to animals and other creations of God; protection of the environment; opening the fields of learning for all; dissemination of peace and security; prevention of injustice, slavery and exploitation; and the list go on and on.
The principles of Samahatul-Islam left no wondering as to what ISIS practices and embraces, God and the guidance of the Qur’an or the Salafi/Wahhabi creed? So, what are the elements that led to the creation of extremism and radical groups? This is our discussion, next.
Having explained “Samahatul-Islam,” I would like to relay to the readers an experience I had at a congregational prayer, which is one of many such experiences:
A young bearded Imam wearing a short dress reaching several inches below his knees, and a headgear (see below: Is Wearing a Head Cover for Men and Robes Sunnah, Prophetic Tradition?), began warning the congregation of the danger of the community they live in: Christians and Jews associate others with Allah; disbelievers fill the surroundings with vice; the streets are filled with bad habits of music, drinking and sex; and people refusing to take-up Islam. Then he explained that none of [these people’s] deeds will be accepted by Allah, no matter how good these deeds were. He recited the following verse in support of his claim:
And whoever desires other than islam (submission) as a religion – never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers. Qur’an 3:85
Even though he did not explicitly say it, the Imam’s theory of deed rejection is based on the rejection of the religion. Yes, the verses he stated talks about “religion” accepting criteria, but this concept is twisted to effect hatred toward all others who are not Muslim. Why should a criterion set by God for accepting a religion and hence a deed be used to insinuate hatred? Has the Imam forgotten the sets of criteria that a believing Muslim must meet before his or her own deeds are accepted? Does the Imam in question think Muslims are given an un conditional blanket of deed acceptance, irrespective? Humility, sincerity, no bragging and showing off, are some of the many conditions in deed acceptance in Islam. Why deed or religion acceptance has become fuel for bigotry?
An interesting commentary on the misrepresentation of this same verse (3:85) is made by Oxford University Press, The Qur’an: A New Translation by M.A.S. Abdel Haleem. It states:
It has to be born in mind that the word islam in Arabic of the Qur’an means
complete devotion/submission to God, unmixed with worship
of any other. All earlier prophets are thus described by Qur’an as muslim.
Those who read this word islam in the sense of the religion
of the Prophet Muhammad will set up a barrier, illegitimately
based on this verse, between Islam and other monotheistic religions.
The Enemies of Woman
Similarly, at a Mosque near Denver, Colorado, the author’s attention was taken by a booklet with the title, “The Enemies of Woman.” A quick browsing of the contents revealed that the enemies of a woman are three: The Christians, the Jews and Western modernism. The reason for this enmity, the booklet explains, is the exploitation of sex, and the lack of sexual limitations in the West. The question that comes to mind is why a sexual matter common to all people of all faiths is suddenly turned into bigotry? In fact, the entire booklet cannot be seen as anything other than a hate tactic against the West, the Christians and Jews. Are Muslims, innocent of sexual exploitation, seduction and luring?
Far more troubling than preaching bigotry was that the author of the booklet of The Enemies of Woman was not an ordinary person or an overly zealous young Muslim, but rather he was one of the most respected Salafi/Wahhabi spiritual leaders in modern times: the late Mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz. Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz was and still is considered an icon of learning for most of the modern Wahhabi/Salafi world. But unfortunately, the late Mufti was ignorant of the many Christians and Jews and Westerners for that matter, who are against immodesty and sexual exploitation in both genders and for any motive.
Instead of addressing the actual issue of people’s sexual exploitation and rather show what Islam offers as a treatment, the highest spiritual leader of an “Islamic State,” has a distorted viewpoint of an ordinary matter of sex to fuel hate and bigotry.
The last time my family and I were in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, June 2011, visiting with dear friends of ours, they informed us of the great task-taking place in Medina, Saudi Arabia. They had taken on the task of translating the Holy Qur’an and producing it by the millions into many different languages. The translated copies are then distributed, free of charge, to designated entities and parties around the world. My friend spoke about the hundreds of experts and scholars supporting this effort, ensuring accuracy and authenticity. She showed me an English translated copy.
As I was looking into the translation to check if certain misinterpreted verses had been corrected, I was quite shocked to see a similar error that Yusuf Ali Abdallah had created in his translation of the holy Qur’an in 1934, were still there. I had thought that Yusuf Ali had translated the word wrong as a result of his language, that wasn’t Arabic. I came to believe that such an error was not because of a language distinction, however, it is rather a Wahhabi/Salafi twist for effecting negative teachings toward Christians and Jews.
For example, in the subsequent verse the word awliya’ (allies solicited for victory in war) was wrongly translated as “friends and protectors.” The verse in question states:
O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians
as Awliya’. They are [in fact] Awliya’ of one another. And whoever
Yatawalahum from amongst you – then indeed, he is [one] of them.
Indeed, Allah guides not the wrongdoing people. Qur’an 5:51
The following is the English translation of the above verse of the English Translation of the Qur’an by King Fahd Holy Qur’an Printing Complex, Medina, Saudi Arabia, revised and edited by the Department of Islamic Research, Ifta (Verdicts) and Guidance, Saudi Arabia.
O you who have believed! Take not the Jews and the Christians for
your friends and protectors: They are the friends and protectors of
each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them.
Verily Allah guides not a people unjust. Qur’an 5:51
The Great Authority Interpreters of the Holy Qur’an Interpretation of the Word Awliya’
Dr. Zuhaily of al-Tafseer al-Muneer (the Enlightened Interpretation of the Holy Qur’an) explained the Arabic word Awliya’ in the verse above as “allied,” affecting victory in times of war. Dr. Zuhaily stated that Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Abi Shayba, Ibn Jareer, Ibn Abi Hatem and Albayhaqi, in their respective Tafaseer (interpretations of the Qur’an) Volumes, reported that this verse was revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad when the Jews of Banu Qunayqa’ broke the covenant between them and the Muslims, due to the murder of a Muslim man for defending the honor of a Muslim woman. Then, Ubadah ibn al-Samit, a companion of the Prophet, cancelled his alliance and pact with the Jews.
In the “Words Meaning” section of al-Tafseer al-Muneer, Dr. Zuhaily gave the meaning of Awliya’ as “allies solicited for victory in war.” In the same manner al Fakher al Razi in the Grand Tafseer of the Holy Qur’an, explained Awliya’ as “allies and supporters of a particular camp.” In fact, al Razi went further expounding on the types of alliances and what may or may not be admissible in Islam. Ibn Katheer, in his “Tafseer of the Holy Qur’an” also explained Awliya’ as “allies.”
While some allies may or may not be friends, translating Awliya’ as friends is totally inaccurate, since an ally may not necessarily be a friend at all. Alliance can be a result of interest in a particular economic venture; can be a common interest due to geography such as land or water; it can also be for personal interest or gain such as petroleum companies in foreign lands.
It is interesting to see a verse in the Qur’an on the subject of ‘believers take friendship with enemies’ of Allah and His Prophet, but yet the word awliya is not in the verse. The word used, instead, is Yuwadoona meaning, taking up a warm-compassionate relationship. Allah said:
You cannot find people who [truly] believe in God and the Last Day
[at the same time] love [have affection with] anyone who contends
against God and His Apostle – even though they be their fathers, or
their sons, or their brothers, or others [of their] kind. Qur’an 58:22
Note: The Arabic word for ‘contends against’ is ‘Hhad,’ meaning warring, challenging, and adverse [to God and His Prophet]. Although, the verse applies in war and peace times, the implication is closer to the war time than peacetime.
Finally, the Arabic word for friend is “Sadeeq.” This word appears in three places in the Holy Qur’an; one in conjunction with the friends of Joseph (Yusuf) and another in conjunction with the absence of a close friend in the Hereafter, and the third is in conjunction with eating at the house of a friend. The word Sadeeq or its derivative does not appear in the verse in question. The reason for this is simple; changing the word awliya’ into sadeeq induces negation and isolation that are contradictory with the Divine guidance of the Qur’an who’s healing is inclusive.
Similar to the wrong translation of Chapter 5, verse 51 above, are the verses 1, Surah 60: and verse 57, Surah 5, in which the word awliya’ was also wrongly translated by the same institution of King Fahd. The correct translation of Awliya’ as allies is seen correctly in Sahih (Authentic) International translation of the Holy Qur’an, which reads:
O you who have believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians
as allies. They are [in fact] allies of one another. And whoever is
an ally to them among you – then indeed, he is [one] of them. Indeed,
Allah guides not the wrongdoing people. Qur’an 5:51
Those who translated awliya’ into friends did not do justice to the Qur’an nor Islam. No one who understands the spirit and essence of Islam and the Holy Qur’an would interpret the word awliya’ as friends.
Other Evidence of Bigotry
While discussing this issue with another dear friend from Saudi Arabia, I was told “In my childhood, we (he and his classmates) were taught in our school not to take the Christians and Jews as friends.” A clear reference supporting my friend’s claim is found in another English translated Qur’an from Saudi Arabia, “The English Translation of the Noble Qur’an.” In the opening chapter of the Qur’an, Al Fatiha, in Verse 7, there are two clauses “al Maghdoobi Alayhim” and “ad Dhaleen,” meaning “those who incurred [Your] wrath” and “those who went astray” respectively.
The Saudi translation by Mohsin Khan, the above verses in the Noble Qur’an states.
The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor,
not the way of those who earned Your anger (such as the Jews),
nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians).
As one can see, the clauses “such as the Jews” and “such as the Christians” appear as integral parts of the wording of the verses so that the reader is indirectly infused with negation and hatred for the Jews and the Christians. The actual wording is who “earned Your anger,” and “who went astray.” Those “earning anger” and “went astray” can be Muslims or non-Muslims alike. But only the Jews and Christians are singled out in the Salafi/Wahhabi interpretation of the Qur’an. This act may induce hostility and negativity toward the Jews and Christians, but not others who could, as well, earn the curse of God, but from different faiths and ethnicities, including Muslims.
The verse above (1:7) is read at least 17 times in Muslims’ daily prayers. The prayer in Islam is an instrument for exercising the soul in humility, tranquility, connectivity and closeness with God; it is not a training institution of intolerance, prejudice, negativity and hate.
Al-Walaa and Al-Barra Principle (loyalty and friendship and disavowal and enmity)
Al-Walaa and al-Barra is a Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine that has recently been made as “the most important principle of Islam.” Nevertheless, as I read the al-Walaa and al-Barra principle, I found it to be based on the distortion of the verses discussed above, and a generalization of the verses dealing with the subject of warfare. Furthermore, “disavowal and enmity” portion is in violation of other principles and the compassionate spirit of Islam.
As can be seen in the image below, this “loyalty and friendship and disavowal and enmity” has become equal to the “entirety of faith” of a believer. It states, “Just as the faith increases or decreases, this ‘principle’ [al-Walaa and al-Barra] increases or decreases and if it is completely destroyed in a person’s heart, this means that faith has been destroyed entirely also ….”
Al-Walaa and Al-Baraa” text principle sample taken from “Allah Said” website: https://qalaallah.wordpress.com/tag/al-walaa-wal-baraa-alliance-and-disavowal
Taking a specific principle for a specific matter and applying it across the board is the generalization fault the Salafi/Wahhabis are committing against God. The “disavowal and enmity” misuses the Islamic principle for taking a stand of hate against people who aid the Muslims’ adversary during war, and applying it to non-believers across the board, even though the mass majority of non-believers are not engaged in animosity against Islam or Muslims.
According to Dr. Adnan Ibrahim, al-Baraa (to hate, and disassociate) applies only to disbelievers fighting the Muslims or committing aggressions against Islam, and not for those who are at peace with them.
Dr. Ibrahim states that Allah, in the Qur’an commands Muslims to be good and just to those disbelievers who “do not fight them for their religion and kick them out of their homes”, Allah said:
Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought
not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes.
Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity. Qur’an 60:8
The “disavowal and enmity” with most nations of the world is in direct conflict with the wisdom of Allah and his creation. As stated earlier in “Samahatul-Islam” section, Allah SWT laid out the standard of his creation on the principle of ta’aruf, ‘peaceful, cooperative coexistence of all people and all nations,’ and righteousness, not alienation and denial. The most noble of the creation, in the sight of Allah, is the most righteous, not the most with “hate and disassociation.”
O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female, and made
you nations and tribes (lita’arafu), so that you may learn about one another and
deal with in kindness. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the
most righteous of you. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. Qur’an 49:13
Another Qur’anic command of goodness for all people is seen in Surah 4, Verse 88. Here, Allah SWT is directing the Muslims to return the greetings of ‘people,’ all or anyone, with better or at least equal greeting. This promotes virtue and harmony for all, not negativity and rancor:
Answer a greeting in kinder words than those said to you in the greeting or
at least as kind. God keeps account of all things. Qur’an 4:86
The Natural Feelings of Love and Hate
Yet, in a more compelling evidence, love and hate come instinctively as a reaction to feelings. People naturally love their parents, families and relatives. Recognizing these facts, the Qur’an teaches:
But if they (your parents) endeavor to make you associate with Me
that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany
them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of
those who turn back to Me [in repentance]. Then to Me will be your
return, and I will inform you about what you used to do. Qur’an 31:15
Similarly, in another verse, the Qur’an addresses Prophet Muhammad regarding disbelievers he liked to be guided, saying,
[Of the disbelievers] Surely you cannot guide whom you love, but Allah
guides whom He pleases, and He knows the best followers of the right way. Qur’an, 28:56
The Account of the “Disavowal and Enmity” Verses
There are verses in the Holy Qur’an that command Muslims’ disapproval of the evil acts of certain people, Muslims or otherwise. Such view includes people, who engage in actual hostility against Allah, Muslims or Islam, stemming from their loyalty and passion for the disbelievers and their religion. Allah states:
You cannot find people who [truly] believe in God and the Last Day
[at the same time] love [have affection with] anyone who contends against God and His Apostle – even though they be their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or others [of their] kind. Qur’an 58:22
As mentioned above, the Arabic word used for ‘contends against’ is ‘Hhad,’ meaning warring, challenging, and committing adverse actions, in this case, against God and His Prophet.
Similarly, the topic of the following verse also centers on combat conditions, such as spying, assassinating or assisting the disbelievers on the account of the believers.
Let not the believers take the disbelievers as allies, instead of the believers,
and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you
indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself (His Punishment),
and to Allah is the final return. Quran, 3:28
Love Toward Certain Disbelievers
One encounters several examples of compassion toward some disbelievers from the Prophet Muhammad and his companions. For instance, Prophet Muhammad admired his uncle Abu Talib, yet, his uncle had been anonbeliever. Historians named the year during which his uncle died as the ‘Year of Sadness,’ pointing to the Prophet’s deep sorrow for the death of his uncle and his wife, Khadijah. Both, his uncle and wife greatly supported the Prophet in accomplishing the duties of his mission. The Prophet said regarding his uncle: “Qurayshdid not hurt me so severely while Abu Talib was alive.” Ibn Hisham
Another biographic story that shows the Prophet’s care and compassion for an idolater is al-Mut’im bin Adi. After the battle of Badr, while figuring out what to do with the prisoners of war, the Prophet said, “Were Al-Mut’im bin Adi alive and interceded with me for these fifty prisoners of war, I would release them for his sake.” Sunan Abi Dawood
Al-Mut’im ben Addi granted protection to Prophet Muhammad during his early Meccan crisis and was additionally one amongst those that voted to sack the 28 moths mad siege of the Prophet and his clan. Historians report that the Muslims were saddened concerning the death of al-Mut’im, and that Hassan Ibn Thabit, the Prophet’s poet composed and sang several lines of poetry once al-Mut’im died. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mut‘im_ibn_‘Adi
Likewise, the Prophet Muhammad consulted the unbelieving tribe of Khuza’ah: “He listened to their advice, and they kept his secrets from Quraysh.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banu_Khuza%27a
In yet another foul play by one of his companion, Hatib Ibn Abi Balta’ah, Prophet Muhammad reacted objectively, not in denial. A few days prior to the secretive plans of the Prophet to attack Mecca, Hatib sent a servant with a letter to Quraysh revealing Muhammad’s intents of attacking the city.
When the Prophet confronted Hatib and found that he had done this for fear that the Meccans would harm his [unprotected] family there, and not out of affection of the idolaters, Quraysh or of their faith, he didn’t reprimand Hatib for such an evil act. The Prophet’s approach to Hatib’s act confers the inherit fault on the blanket of “disavowal and enmity” claim against nonbelievers, and prove that Islam take matters sensibly by cases, not as a blanket, and with reason, fairness and rationality.
Oversimplifying hostility for all non-Muslims, and alluding it to Islam, is an offense against Allah, the Qur’an and the teachings of Prophet Muhammad. One must wonder, why is it that such a simple and reasonable aversion principle against a class of harmful people can be taken out of context, and is being made as a “faith ranking standard,” and “one of the most important principles of Islam?”
The above verses and biography examples are solid substantiations questioning the validity and the wrong generalization of the principle of al-Barra. Al-Barra should only be made against people who support the enemy of the disbelievers engaging in combatant situations against Islam and befriending and loving the disbelievers for their religion. These examples show the effect of ‘asabiyyah in a creed, and in acting upon a verdict of a particular Sheik or Imam. ‘Asabiyyah can and will indeed blind the sights, veil the hearts and lock the minds, and overrule the way of God and His Prophet.
Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion
and do not expel you from your homes (an tabaroohum, from birr) – from
being righteous and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly. Qur’an 60:8
In the verse above, Allah (SWT) describes the manners during which Muslims deal with unbelievers, including Christians and Jews, by birr. Birr is the highest level of mannerism and ethics in the Muslim culture. At this high level of compassion, Muslims are summoned to treat the unbelievers, who don’t fight them for their religion and expel them from their homes. With birr, children demonstrate their behavior toward their parents and elders. This form of honorable mannerism is much more than a simple friendly relationship.
From another perspective, Allah (SWT) permits Muslims to marry Christians and Jews, and describes the relationships as intimate.
And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves
mates that you may find tranquility in them; and He placed
between you affection and mercy. Indeed in that are signs
for a people who give thought. Qur’an 30:21
Can intimacy be realized without friendship? Matrimonial relationships are weaved in passion, over and above friendship. It is only individuals with distasteful ta’ssub, have the gall to transgress the boundaries of Allah and defame His religion by actually twisting the principles of Islam, and the words of the Qur’an to serve their own agenda.
The curse of God goes on those who devotedly change the true meaning of the words of the Qur’an; who faithfully tarnish the image of Islam; are extreme in religion; and who fuel hatred and intolerance between people. Instead of pleasing Allah in promoting peace, mercy, and compassion for all, they create falsehood, discord, dissension, and enmity. To those, Allah’s condemnation is clear:
Among the Jews are those who distort words from their [proper]
usages and say, “We hear and disobey” and “Hear but be not heard”
and “Ra’ina,” (be kind to us) twisting their tongues and defaming the religion.
And if they had said [instead], “We hear and obey” and “Wait for us [to understand],”
it would have been better for them and more suitable. But Allah has
cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not, except for a few. Qur’an 4:46
Say, “O People of the Scripture, do not wrongly exceed the proper limit of devotion
of your religion beyond the truth or follow the desires of a people
who have erred. They have misled many others and have
themselves stayed far away from the right path.” Qur’an 5:77
Allah (SWT) also said:
Do not commit excess in your religion or say about Allah
except the truth. Qur’an 4:171
Are the Salafi/Wahhabis doing a similar act, some of the people of the Scripture were cursed for? One wonders as to why some people refuse but to earn the curse of Allah? Again, ghulu actions demonstrate the radical symptom of ‘asabiyah’.
Prophet Muhammad wanted his Umma (nation) to be “serene and tranquil, and should not fall prey to the impetuous rage and vengeful fury of jahiliyyah.”
Ghulu, excessiveness in religion is a sinful oddity which leads to stiff hearts and dry souls. Oftentimes ghulu urge hardship and difficulty. Islam is the religion of the middle-road, and the easy one. The Prophet (PBUH) said:
“Be aware of ghulu in religion. What destroyed these before you is ghulu in their religion.” Bukhari
Also, Allah (SWT) said:
“Allah wants ease for you not hardship.” Qur’an 2:185
The prophet also said:
“The best of the religion to Allah is the easy and straight forward (al Hanafiyatu al Samhah).” Masnad Imam Ahmad and al Tabarani
Moderation, middle of the roads and the easier of any two choices are the ways of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). These rightful traits are essential qualities of faith for every believer, since they are the keys to favorable atmospheres for all.
Is Wearing a Head Cover and Robes for Men (Thawb) Sunnah (Prophetic Tradition)
Earlier on, there was a statement in reference to the type of clothing the Imam in question was wearing. It’s not to belittle the clothing style, but to make mention that this trend is not an absolute Islamic one. Do Muslims have to have beards, put on headgear and wear short robes to be considered as practicing Muslims? Unfortunately to some this is fact and could be the ultimate goal. Some Imams teach that this cosmetic look and clothing style is a Prophetic Tradition, Sunnah. They are ignoring the fact that this clothing style was a common style and most suited for the desert environment. Abu Jahl and Abu Lahab, the worst enemies of the Prophet wore the same fashion, were they practicing the Sunnah?
Wearing headgear or hats is a must in the desert. Without protecting the head from the heat of the desert’s sun, one is a risk to have a heat stroke, which is frequently fatal. Loose clothing helps cool the body in the extreme heat of the desert. Wrapping the head and face, except for the eyes, with cloth, protects the face from the blowing and blistering sand. Remember, Allah (SWT) created the camels with double eyelids for this reason. Besides, this desert clothing style can be fatal for persons living in Siberia, Russia, Alaska or parts of Canada in the winter. Harming one’s body is an offense in Islam.
More often than not, the clothing style one wears can annoy people. From a better Da’wah vantage point, Imams and others may benefit from the Prophet’s saying: “Speak the language of your people.” Communication is not just by the tongue, it can also be by the understanding of people’s culture. It can be by considering people’s descent and traditions. The clothing style the Prophet (PBUH) wore was the same style his people wore. If the Sunnah is to follow the Prophet (PBUH), then the Muslim’s clothing style should not be different from the clothing style of his own people, not mimicking that of the seventh century or the desert dwellers. Furthermore, being odd, eccentric, foreign or strange, stimulates people’s dislike, since people tend to fear the strange and the unknown.
Ritual’s Intent Versus Ritual’s Formation
In Islam the intent and goal of a ritual is central to its function, not so much in the shape or format of it. A car’s function is to get its riders from point A to point B safely, regardless of its color or shape. Hence colors or shapes are secondary. The goal of piety is action that first seeks the pleasure of Allah by avoiding all sinful acts, and by making Islam outstanding and causes no harm to others in its realization. Then comes the format and shape of the ritual. A man came to the Prophet (PBUH) and said:
Oh Prophet of God, I conducted the seven ritual rounds of Sa’ie before circling the Ka’ba, the Prophet replied: ‘no issue, the issue is in one coming close to the honor (sexual approaches, luring, defamation, etc.,) of his brother.’ Sunan Abu Dawood
Understanding the core functions of Islam and paying little attention to digressive issues can dispose of many Muslim conflicts, setbacks and failures. So much damage can be caused to the social structures in families, friends and society when one encroaches on his brother or friend’s honor. This is where one must be savvy, but as the Prophet (PBUH) said, “no issue,” there can be the order of rituals. Having the sense of what is prudent in Islam and what is not, and then act accordingly is what is missing in today’s Muslim world.
The Salafi/Wahhabi Systems of Restrictions and Denials
When the physical and meticulous details in rituals and other religious duties become the objectives and in only one restrictive form, and when much of the permissible become prohibited, then the human life turns into a system of restraints and refusals. Worse yet, when one is forced to conform to such practices or else be threaten with death if he or she did not conform. Such a system and denial is far too far from the spirit and objectives of the Qur’an.
In his book, “The Great Theft, Wrestling Islam from the Extremists,” Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl defines extremists and fanatics, such as the Salafi/Wahhabis as “puritans,” because of the distinguishing characteristics: “absolutist and uncompromising nature of its belief.” Dr. Abou El Fadl explains that the puritans consider, “the details and specifics take precedents over the ethical and moral objectives of the Qur’an …. But for moderates, as Dr. Abou El Fadl describes as the majority of mainstream Muslims, the moral and ethical objectives of the Qur’an play a central and pivotal role in the process of legal analysis. The point of legal analysis is not to unthinkably and blindly implement a set of technical rules, but to seek after the ultimate objectives of the Qur’an.
All Qur’anic laws reinforces and promote moral and ethical objectives, such as racial and ethnic equality, freedom from compulsion in the conduct of human affairs, freedom of conscience, and the right of women to own property, and it is the duty of Muslims to apply themselves intellectually in order to comprehend and fulfill those objectives. These moral objectives are related to the obligation to seek Godliness in oneself and society.”
Dr. Abou El Fadl, further added, “Because puritans do not think of the specific rules as demonstrative examples but as objectives in themselves, they seek to implement the rules regardless of whether their application will enhance or undermine Qur’anic principles such as justice, equity and mercy.”
Dr. Abou El Fadl, further elaborated,
“Even more disturbing, is that by relying on the most tangential and tenuous types of evidence, puritans force upon Muslims a kind of austerity that is entirely suffocating. In fact, much of what they advocate is affirmatively designed to remove tenderness and kindness from the human heart. They eradicate art, beauty, and anything else that excites the creative imagination, and demand that Muslims become like mechanized robots. Furthermore, since according to puritans God has an affirmative will as to most matters in life, puritans have rules that regulate how one eats, drinks, dresses, sits, walks, goes to the bathroom, makes love, and undertakes practically every other aspect of life. For every human activity, there are rules that must be observed. Below are examples of common puritan laws as practiced in parts of the Muslim world today:
- Music, singing, and dancing in all forms are forbidden.
- All television programs, unless religious, are forbidden.
- The giving of flowers is forbidden.
- Clapping the hands in applause is forbidden.
- Drawing human or animal figures is forbidden.
- Acting in a play is forbidden, because it is a form of lying.
- Wearing shirts with animal or human images is forbidden.
- Shaving one’s beard is forbidden.
- Eating or writing with the left hand is forbidden.
- Standing up in honor of someone is forbidden.
- Celebrating anyone’s birthday, including the Prophet’s, is forbidden.
- Keeping or petting dogs is forbidden.
- Dissecting cadavers even in criminal investigations and for the purposes of medical research is forbidden.
“it is strictly the relationship between superior and inferior. God is to be feared and obeyed, and it is the fear of God’s vengeance that defines true piety. As for God’s mercy and compassion, the puritans believe that these two qualities have already been incorporated into the law. And since God’s mercy and compassion are already contained in the law decreed by God, by definition, the law must be considered compassionate and merciful. In the puritan view, it is not up to humans to reflect upon or think about the nature of God’s mercy or compassion or the implication of the Divine mercy or compassion. Al humans need to do is study the law, because it is already the full embodiment of both God’s mercy and compassion.
It is as if God took whatever compassion and mercy that the human beings might need in life, and put it all in the Divine law. Therefore, if one needs to find, experience or feel this Divine mercy, all one needs to do is to obey and follow the law…. The actual social impact that the law might have upon people is considered irrelevant. Although people might feel that the law is harsh, or that its application results in social suffering, this perception is considered delusional.”
Is this why, for instance, ISIS bomb markets, mosques, funerals, and towns crowded with people, but yet were oblivious to the social suffering caused by the laws that they enforced—since they believed that the law is divine there was no point to evaluating the actual impact upon the people they impacted?
Dr. Abou El Fadle continued to state:
“The approach of the moderate Muslims to the relationship with God is materially different in several respects. Explaining the moderate approach begin with trust between God and humanity. The Qur’an describes the moment of creation as the moment in which humanity was entrusted with the heavy responsibility. God gave humanity the blessing of rationality and the ability to differentiate between right and wrong. God made human beings God’s agents or viceroys on earth and entrusted them with the responsibility to civilize the land. State the concept of building the earth
In the moderate conception, God is inherently and fundamentally moral. Puritans give God whimsical quality—God is just, but justice is whatever God will it to be. Similarly, God is merciful, but mercy is what God wills it to be. So, for instance, if God in the Final Day decides to damn all women or all Caucasians regardless of their actions, that would be just and good, simply because God willed it.
For moderates this would be impossible. God is moral and ethical, in the since that God shares with human being an objective standard for goodness, morality, and beauty. Civilizing the earth does not mean constructing building or paving roads. It means striving on earth to spread the divine attributes such as justice, mercy, compassion, goodness, and beauty. In doing so, human beings spread Divinity itself upon earth. In contrast, corrupting the earth—spreading violence, hatred, vengeance, and ugliness—means failure in discharging one’s obligations toward God.
The Qur’an teaches that the act of destroying or spreading ruin on this earth is one of the gravest sins possible—fasad fi al-ard, which means to corrupt the earth by destroying the beauty of creation, [such as what ISIS and other extremists have inflected in Iraq, Syria, Libya an Egypt,] is considered an ultimate act of blasphemy against God.
In moderate thought, God is too great to be embodied in a code of law. The Law helps Muslims in the quest for godliness, but Godliness cannot be equated to the law….to love God in an honest and genuine way, a person would necessarily desire and even covet attributes such as fairness, justice, compassion, equity, forgiveness, and purity. The converse is also true. To love God in a genuine and true fashion, a person would dislike what God finds offensive, such as aggression, injustice, cruelty, treachery, dishonesty, and arrogance, among others.
“puritans place God beyond any emotion such as love. As an absolute master, God, rewards the obedient and punishes the disobedient, but this is the extent of the relationship. Moderate emphasize the Qur’anic discourse that reminds human begins of the nearness of God to them.
No person has the right to judge whatever any worshipper is honestly and genuinely submitting to the one and only God or the alternative, worshipping some other god. This point is critically important because as will be recalled, puritans like Abd al Wahhab used to accuse Muslims of associating partners with God, which in effect was another way of saying that Muslims did not worship the One and only God…As a result, engaging in practice of takfeer, whether calling a Muslim an idolater, a polytheist, an apostate, or an infidel— Abd al Wahhab and other puritans were able to justify murdering many Muslims.
Inception of the Wahhabi Creed
In the historical past, influenced by the teachings of Ibn Taymiyya, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.1703–1791) created Wahhabism. Convinced that it was his religious mission to wage jihad against all other forms of Islam, he began the conquest of his neighbors in 1763. By 1811, the Wahhabis ruled out all of Arabia, with the exception of Yemen, from their capital in Riyadh. The Ottoman sultan, nominally suzerain (a feudal lord of sorts) over Arabia, had vainly sent out expeditions to crush them. Only when the sultan called on Muhammad Ali of Egypt for aid did he meet with success. By the year 1818, the Wahhabis were driven into the Nejd desert.
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab’s extremist views and doctrines led to controversy in Uyaynah (his town). Many of the town’s leaders were not fond of his fundamentalist approach to Islam. Merely invoking the name of the prophet Muhammad, was by al-Wahhab’s standards, a grave sin.
In 1744, he was expelled from Uyaynah. Al-Wahhab then settled in Ad-Dir’iyah, which was under the control of a powerful tribal leader named Ibn Sa’ud. Ibn Sa’ud became a believer of Wahhab’s doctrines and the two formed a strong alliance. Al-Wahhab and Ibn Sa’ud swore a Muslim pledge with each other in which they vowed to establish a new state that would operate under al-Wahhab’s strict interpretation of Islamic Law. (Ahmed; Anon., Wahhabism; Bijlefeld; Haykel; Hisham; Metz, Kuwait; Metz, Saudi). Thus began a military campaign that would shake the Arabian Peninsula to its core. Wahhabism provided Ibn Sa’ud with the justification he needed to raid and conquer nearby settlements. Though these settlements were Muslim (traditional Islamic law prohibits Islamic states from attacking each other), the Wahhabi doctrine viewed all non-Wahhabists as infidels.
It was then that Ibn Sa’ud found a legitimate purpose to bring the nearby settlements under his control and spreading “true Islam” to the infidels. (Ahmed; Anon., Wahhabism; Bijlefeld; Haykel; Hisham; Metz, Kuwait; Metz, Saudi) The Wahhabists were indiscriminate in their killings of Muslims and non-Muslims. They soon gained a reputation as brutal and fanatical warriors. They were described as being so fanatical that they had little regard for their own lives. Their sole purpose was to kill the enemy. By the time of his death in 1765, Ibn Sa’ud had managed to gain control over most of the region and had spread Wahhabism to those conquered lands. (Ahmed; Anon., Wahhabism; Bijlefeld; Haykel; Hisham; Metz, Kuwait; Metz, Saudi).” Click here for the Source
History to be continued…
Under this title, “Exporting Hatred” Ambassador Curtin Winsor of the United States of America, who was a special Emissary to the Middle East, reports:
The United States has largely eliminated the infrastructure and operational leadership of Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda terrorist network over the past five years. However, its ideological offspring continue to proliferate across the globe. American efforts to combat this contagion are hamstrung by the fact that its ideological and financial epicenter is Saudi Arabia, where an ostensibly pro-Western royal family governs through a centuries-old alliance with the fanatical Wahhabi Islamic sect. In addition to indoctrinating its own citizens with this extremist creed, the Saudi government has lavishly financed the propagation of Wahhabism throughout the world, sweeping away moderate interpretations of Islam even within the borders of the United States.
While Saudi citizens remain the vanguard of Islamic theofascism around the world, the growth potential for this ideology lies outside the Kingdom. The Saudis have spent at least $87 billion propagating Wahhabism abroad during the past two decades and the scale of financing is believed to have increased in the past two years as oil prices have skyrocketed. The bulk of this funding goes to the construction and operating expenses of mosques, madrassas, and other religious institutions that preach Wahhabism. It also supports the training of Imams; domination of mass media and publishing outlets; distribution of Wahhabi textbooks and other literature; and endowments to Universities (in exchange for influence over the appointment of Islamic scholars).”
Ambassador Curtin Winsor continued to report that the books and other literature “imprint with the Saudi Embassy” contain:
“Be dissociated from the infidels, hate them for their religion, leave them, never rely on them for support, do not admire them, and always oppose them in every way according to Islamic law. Whoever helps unbelievers against Muslims, regardless of what type of support he lends to them, he is an unbeliever himself. Never greet the Christian or Jew first. Never congratulate the infidel on his holiday. Never befriend an infidel unless it is to convert him. Never imitate the infidel. Never work for an infidel. Do not wear a graduation gown because this imitates the infidel.” Reference Amb. Curtin Winsor, PhD. October 22 2007.
The Bigger Picture
“Wahhabi proselytizing is not limited to the Islamic world. The Saudis have financed the growth of thousands of Wahhabi mosques, madrassas, and other religious institutions in Western countries that have fast-growing Muslim minorities during the past three decades. Wahhabi penetration is deepest in the social welfare states of Western Europe, where chronically high unemployment has created large pools of able-bodied young Muslim men who have “become permanent wards of the state at the cost of their basic human dignity.”
“The lack of a formal ecclesiastical hierarchy within Sunni Islam renders traditional religious institutions weak in the face of well-funded Wahhabi missionary activities. Most Sunni Muslims look to their local Imams for religious guidance. In poor countries, these Imams and local leaders often find it difficult to resist the small amounts of Saudi aid that accompany Wahhabist missionaries. Moderate Imams do not have a comparable source of financial patronage with which to combat its spread. Important fronts in this campaign are in south and southeast Asia, where the majority of the world’s Muslims live. In Pakistan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia and southern Thailand, Wahhabis have co-opted (or replaced) village and neighborhood Imams and there is a fresh stream of converts returning from stays as guest workers in Saudi Arabia. The children of poor converts are often taken to Saudi Arabia for “education” and many are returned as cannon fodder for use by Wahhabi terrorist fronts.”
It is imperative as hearts are go dry of mercy, love and compassion, and minds are fed denial, hate, extreme, gulu and taught not to use intellect, have zero considerations for other scholars, and no weight to all other Muslims, destruction, bloodshed and violence are immanent? Worse yet, with the scheme of retiring the intellect and having their adherents listen and obeying them only, the Salafi/Wahhabi clergies, insure that their adherents are going to continue to follow them, and grow in a dark and ignorant zone. A clear picture of such teachings and scheme is the recent and continuous slay of people and destruction in Iraq, Libya, Egypt and Syria by the hands of the Salafi/Wahhabi creed followers. As if they are taught that their function on earth is to corrupt and destroy it.
Anytime, anywhere the Salafi/Wahhabi environment exist, the social environment is poisoned with negativism inducing bigotry, breeding hate and carnage. This carnage sometimes comes by way of organized groups such as al-Qaeda, al-Nusrah and ISIS, and at other times by individuals such as that of Boston, Massachusetts, Syed Rizwan Farook of San Bernardino, California, and Ahmad Rahami in New York.
This carnage has no limits and comes in many colors and forms: downing of passenger airplanes, such as the Russian over the Saini Desert, conducting suicidal operations in crowded places, such as market places, funeral processions and congregational prayers; and by assassinating religious and spiritual leaders, such as in Russia and Syria.
Inducing Egypt’s Coptic and Muslim Animosity
Is the discord and animosity between the Coptic Christians and some Muslims in Egypt an example of the culture of bigotry? Nowhere in the Muslim world does one find hate and enmity between Muslims and Christians more ingrained as in Egypt.
The Wahhabi/Salafi creed has been creeping into Egypt from Saudi Arabia for decades. In a television interview, Hassan al Banna’s (founder of the Muslim Brotherhood Party) younger brother Jamal was asked about why the spirit of “extremism and radicalism” encompasses the Muslim Brotherhood’s philosophy. His response was that many members of the Muslim Brotherhood, who left Egypt to Saudi Arabia for work in the early 1960s when petroleum was discovered, returned to Egypt carrying the Salafi/Wahhabi creed with them.
An annual youth brain-washing package and training in Salafi/Wahhabi belief organizes trips to Saudi Arabia from Egypt during the Hajj season. After the Hajj ritual is over, the youth stay in Saudi Arabia for several more months in training camps, until the time of Umra, the Minor Pilgrimage, whereby the attendees perform Umra, before returning back to Egypt. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehAuceckfbU
Unlike Saudi Arabia, where there is no Christian population to inflict a conflict, Egypt has a Christian Coptic population, where the creed’s seeds of bigotry soon produced animosity and conflict between the two groups. Check out the following link for more details. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ehAuceckfbU%20-%20!
Global Politician on Wahhabi History in Egypt
Here is a link for a little historical background from Global Politician on Wahhabi history and Egypt: http://www.globalpolitician.com/default.asp?23661-saudi/ – _ftn15.
Wahhabism was largely confined to the Arabian Peninsula until the 1960s, when the Saudi monarchy gave refuge to radical members of the Muslim Brotherhood fleeing persecution in Nasser’s Egypt. A cross-fertilization of sorts occurred between the atavistic but isolated the Wahhabi creed of the Saudi religious establishment and the Salafi jihadist teachings of Sayyid Qutb.
Also, see the article “Who is ISIS,” (http://www.islamic-study.org/who-is-isis-isis-formulation) for more details. The report continued to state:
Qutab denounced secular Arab rulers as unbelievers and proclaimed them to be legitimate targets of jihad. “It was the synthesis of the twain-Wahhabi social and cultural conservatism, and Qutbist political radicalism that produced the militant variety of Wahhabist political Islam that eventually (produced) al-Qaeda [and later ISIS].”
Sayyed Qutb Resonant Abdul Al-Wahhab’s Oratory
In his book, Milestones on the Road, Sayyed Qutb alleged that all Muslims of today are considered jahili Muslims, and have to migrate to the Islamic state as soon as it is found. But if they do not migrate, then they are deliberated apostate and infidels. Qutb further contended that the sovereignty exclusively belongs to God, and any ruler is parenting with God’s sovereignty, if not ruling by Shari, hence he/she shall be exterminated along with their governments. Sighting Sayyed Qutub’s writing, Dr. Abou El Fadl in his work, “The Great Theft, Wrestling Islam from the Extremists,” stated, “Like ‘Abd al-Wahhab, Qutb accused the vast majority of Muslims of being hypocrites and heretics….Clearly, Qutb’s willingness to declare Muslims to be apostates was reminiscent of ‘Abd al-Wahhab’s rhetoric on the true belief and apostasy.”
August 28, 2017
June 28, 2017