Muhammad bin Zakariya ar-Razi, a prolific author, was one of the most brilliant geniuses of the Middle Ages who wrote about Philosophy, Logic, Astronomy and Physical Science. Upon completing his medical education in Baghdad, Muhammad bin Zakariya ar-Razi collected data and wrote his first medical book on hospital experiences. His second book, Al-Tibb al Mansuri talks about the art of healing, and tackles the aspects of Anatomy, Physiology, dietaries, preservation of health, Toxicology, Pathology and fever. His third book, At-tibb Ar-Rohani, deals with the moral and psychological ills of human spirit.
Muhammad bin Zakariya ar-razi’s most comprehensive book was al Hawi Fi at-Tib, an encyclopedia of medical science of both the Greeks and Muslims medical knowledge. It was translated to Latin by the Jewish physician Faraj bin Salem in 1292 under the title Continens.
Ibn Rushed (Averroes) Andalucía
Another Philosopher in Islam was Ibn Rushd (1126-1198). In Latin he was known as Averroes. Ibn Rushd was an Aristotelian and an author of some of the most influential medical works. He provided Europe with integral commentaries on understanding Aristotle who was a significant influence in Western scientific development.
In fact, Jewish philosophers such as Ibn Maymun, known as Maimonides (d. 1204), Yahuda ben Solomo Cohen and Aveicebron who were the main glory of intellect, were students of Ibn Rushd and Arabic philosophy. It is the Islamic philosophy that floats high above all racism that gave freedom and protection to minority and the Jews who translated the Arabic works into Hebrew (12th to 14th century).
Rom Landau stated in his book, “The Arab Heritage of Western Civilization” that “Averroism became the chief doctrine of the philosophical schools of Paris, Padua and Bologna. Veerroism helped lay the foundation for the Renaissance.”