Al-Biruni was among those who laid the foundation for modern trigonometry. He was a philosopher, geographer, astronomer, physicist and mathematician. Six hundred years before Galgeo, Al-Biruni discussed the theory of the earth rotating about its own axis.
Al-Biruni carried out geodisic measurements and determined the earth's circumference in a most ingenious way. With the aid of mathematics, he enabled the direction of the Qibla to be determined from anywhere in the world.
In the domain of trigonometry, the theory of the functions; sine, cosine, and tangent was developed by Muslim scholars of the tenth century. Muslim scholars worked diligently in the development of plane and spherical trigonometry. The, trigonometry of Muslims is based on Ptolemy's theorem but is superior in two important respects: it employs the sine where Ptolemy used the chord and is in algebraic instead of geometric form.
is Taught: The Greeks were the developers
Should be Taught:Trigonometry remained
largely a theoretical science among the Greeks.
was developed to a level of modern perfection
by Muslim scholars, although the weight of the
credit must be given to al-Battani.
words describing the basic functions of this science,
sine, cosine and tangent, are all derived from
Arabic terms. Thus, original contributions by
the Greeks in trigonometry were minimal.
is Taught: During the 17th century
Rene Descartes made the discovery that algebra
could be used to solve geometrical problems. By
this, he greatly advanced the science of geometry.
Should be Taught: Mathematicians of
the Islamic Empire accomplished precisely this
as early as the 9th century A.D. Thabit bin Qurrah
was the first to do so, and he was followed by
Abu'l Wafa, whose 10th century book utilized algebra
to advance geometry into an exact and simplified