The Prophet Muhammad Documentary-2

 

The Prophet Muhammad–Inspiration Humanism Faith and Reason

It was early in the 7th century when the glory of guidance and enlightenment rose like the morning sun. The history of humanity was to witness a turning point away from the shackles of violence, slavery, tyranny and superstitious into the state of sanity and inspiration.

Prophet Muhammad uplifted the human race from the ignorance of worshipping idols, arrogance, self-interest inspiring them into the light of knowledge, virtue, rationality, and peace.

It was not a war that opened up the hearts of the millions to Prophet Muhammad; it was with his core human values that mobilized [rallied] them. Only under his teachings and leadership, security, peace, the dignity of women and the poor was established. Every member of the society became an integral part of the social, political, and moral processes.

Today, in the 21st century, Muhammad’s adoration and love nestle in billions of hearts and minds around the world. For his compassionate soul and radiant personality, “the simplest peasant and the most sophisticated intellectual and mystic, alike, can share his love, as a warm human emotion.”

He was a reformer of social justice and the justest. Recognized by the United States Supreme Court as the Greatest Law Giver in 1935. Source: www.supremecourt.gov/about/figures of justice.pd

 

The rich, the poor, the slave, the free were equal before the law. Education– the practical leveling tool — was no longer for the privileged. Lay people,  servants or otherwise such as Bilal, the Ethiopian, Salman the Persian, Suhayb the Roman, Aishah, Khadijah, and Umu Salama ranked among the foundations of learning, they were and still are inspirational figures for all.

From Arabia’s barren desert arose an inspirational fountain of knowledge, virtues, and spirituality that impresses the intellectuals, poets, philosophers, historians and legendary leaders to this day.

Mecca, in the Arabian Peninsula, is the land of the rebirth of Islam and the Prophet Muhammad’s guidance shaped a civilization that extended from central China, Russia, and South Asia in the east, Africa to Western Europe and much of the west.

This documentary explores Muhammad’s character, his mind, and soul, as a person, a husband, father, statesman, leader, manager, teacher, merchant, and Prophet of God.

Muhammad’s virtuosity, traits; missionary work, relationship with friend and foe will be demonstrated.

The evolution that the Prophet of Islam founded was the seed of the rebirth of Europe from its Dark Ages into the Renaissance. Robert Briffault in his book, “The Making of Humanity” states:


“It was under the influence of the Arabs and Moorish (Muslims) revival of culture and not in the 15th century, that a real renaissance took place. Spain, not Italy, was the cradle of the rebirth of Europe. Science is the most momentous contribution of Arab civilization to the modern world, but its fruits were slow in ripening. Not until long after Moorish culture had sunk back into darkness did the giant, which it had given birth to, rise in his might. It was not science only which brought Europe back to life. Other and manifold influence from the civilization of Islam communicated its first glow to European life.”

In his book, AD 1000 A World on the Brink of Apocalypse, Richard Erdoes states,

“Andalusia was, above all, famous as a land of scholars, libraries, books lovers and collectors…when Gerbert (Gerbert Of Aurillac) studied at Vich, northern Spain (ca. 995-999), the libraries of Moorish [Islamic] Spain contained close to a million manuscripts…

“Cordoba’s glory was the Great Library established by Al-Hakam II…ultimately it contained 400, 000 volumes…”

Gerbert of Aurillac better known as Silvester “took a firm hold of the Arabic numbers, and became renowned for his scholarly achievements and advances in education.” 

Silvester died on May 12, 1003, in Rome, Italy, where, the European Renascence is known to have started in the 1500s.

https://books.google.com/books?id=3ZK98cShxwYC&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=Gerbert+Of+Aurillac+studied+at+Vich&source=bl&ots=IivBERjAOK&sig=a-4ganZh7jkR9Galup3ChXLuWGg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwii_5mW_63QAhWqjlQKHaY9ChMQ6AEISzAJ#v=onepage&q=Gerbert%20Of%20Aurillac%20studied%20at%20Vich&f=false

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sylvester-II

Richard Erdoes, 1000 AD (Berkley: Seastone, 1998), 60-61.

http://everything2.com/title/Historical+Evidence+Regarding+the+Libraries+of+Muslim+Spain

Muslim Spain
http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/engl257/Don%20Quixote/moorish_influence_on_renaiss.htm

Heraclius

Muhammad’s Nobility and Honesty 

Muhammad Before He Received the Revelation

In Mecca, before receiving the Revelation, Muhammad was known as As-Sadiq al-Ameen, the Truthful the Trustworthy.

Even his enemies attested to his virtues.
Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius Augustus, c. 575-February 11 641, was emperor of Rome between 610 to 641. He received a letter from Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and in response summoned Abu Sufian, a prominent Meccan leader of the Quraysh, to inquire about Muhammad. Even though at the time Abu Sufyan was one of Muhammad’s worst opponents, his testimony of the lineage and characters Muhammad impressed the Emperor. When he finished inquiring about the personality of Muhammad, the nature of the new religion, the health of the mission and Muhammad’s followers, he proclaimed:

“If what you have said is true, Muhammad would likely occupy the place beneath my feet.” (Al-Bukhari)  http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Muhammad

Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs, By Nadia Maria El-Cheikh,
Harvard CMESCopyright.

https://books.google.com/books?id=QC03pKNpfaoC&pg=PA48&lpg=PA48&dq=abu+sufyan+meeting+with+heraclius&source=bl&ots=Bk2IYjbC8U&sig=-TSOe6jfbQ2I4bLrQNWrL25QeFc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjH9PuV953SAhUOzmMKHSKxDoMQ6AEIPzAG#v=onepage&q=abu%20sufyan%20meeting%20with%20heraclius&f=false

Byzantium viewed by the Arabs

Author: Nadia M El Cheikh-Saliba
Publisher: Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.] : Harvard Univ. Press, 2004.

Before his receiving the Revelation, Muhammad used to go up mount Noor, located north of Mecca, where he would stay in contemplation for days and even months.

During one of these meditations, a strange encounter shook Muhammad to the bones. Something like an angel filled out the horizon above, saying, “Oh Muhammad read.” Frightened was Muhammad. I cannot read, he responded. But this angle  took him into his arms and squeezed until he was out of breath, telling him telling him “O Muhammad Read,” Muhammad again said I cannot read, then the arc Angel said:

Read in the name of your Lord who created – Created man from a clinging substance. Read, and your Lord is the most Generous – Who taught by the pen – Taught man that which he knew not.….Qur’an 96:1-5

Muhammad was terrified.

He scampered down the mountain to his wife Khadija, telling her what he had experienced, shaking convulsively, crying “Cover me, cover me, I fear for myself,” She took him into her embrace, wrapped a cloak around him and held him until he calmed down.

After he told her the story of what happened to him, He said: “I fear for myself.” Was this creature an angle? Or was it a Jinni? Was it a spirit came to harm him? Or was he being appointed as a Prophet?

Knowing his inner-soul well, not surprisingly, Khadija believed in her husband’s prophethood, even before he came to accept. She said to him:

“No, do not fear for yourself. By God, He will not disappoint you. You are good to kinship; you speak the truth; you help the weak and helpless; you are generous to your guests, and you aid the distressed.”  Shamail-Page 398 See Volume 2 of Sirah

Khadija then took Muhammad to her cousin, Waraqah ibn Nofal, who had left his people’s idol worship and embraced Christianity. After telling him the story of Muhammad. He responded, “this must be the same great spirit that spoke to Moses. Muhammad must be the awaited Prophet, and if I am alive when his people drive him out of his town, I will help him.” Surprised was Muhammad, “Will my people drive me out of Mecca?  He said.  Waraqah responded, yes.  

Before the advent of Islam, Arab tribes used to raid each other for food and livestock otherwise known as “ghawz.” During droughts, anything became fair game. One such victim was an eight-year-old Zayd ibn Harithah. Zayed was seized during his mom’s visit with here family in Greater Syria.

Zayd was from the tribe of Kalb in Syria. Zayd’s mother had taken her son to visit her family in the tribe of Tayy. During their visit, the village was raided by bandits from the tribe of Bani Kayn and amongst the plunders they seized was Zayd, who was sold as a slave in Mecca to Khadijah’s nephew, Hakim, who later gave him to her.  Khadijah at a later time gave Zayd as a wedding gift to Muhammad. http://www.mcleanministries.com/Biography.htm#_RWTOC-4

Understandably, Zayd’s family was in agony at the loss of their son. His father, Harithah, had composed poetry revealing the anguish and sadness of life without their son, wondering about his fate.
At one time, his father learned that Zayd was living at the house of Muhammad. Knowing the distinguished reputation of Muhammad in Mecca, he was confident that his son would return home. Harithah and his brother traveled to Mecca and approached Muhammad at the Kaaba to plea Zayd’s return, offering the sizeable sum of money they had collected.

When Muhammad told them that he had a better solution, they said to him that could be a better solution than money? “We will give him the freedom to choose his fate,” replied Muhammad, “ If he wants to stay with me, I cannot refuse his wish. But if he chose to go with you, I will not take the ransom money.

Zayd was sent for and was overjoyed to see his father and uncle. Then, Muhammad asked him if he wished to return with them or to remain with him in his household. When Zayd’s reply was to stay with Muhammad, Zayd’s father and uncle were astound, with amazement they said, “How could you choose slavery over freedom and family?” Zayd told them that he had never been treated with goodness as that of Muhammad.

What about Zayd’s father dignity? Would Muhammad deny it?  No. Muhammad’s next move was to take Zayd by his hand to the Ka’ba, and announce to the Quraysh that he had adopted Zayd. Zayd’s father was satisfied and even happy for Muhammad’s courteous action.

Unlike his people’s social construct based on slavery and indentured servitude, Muhammad treated all people with dignity, compassion, and empathy regardless of the social class, even before he received the revelation. 

Zayed to Muhammad was not property.  The wishes and concerns of a slave were as valuable to the master.  From there on Zayd was called, “son of Muhammad,” until Islam abolished such adoption years later. Such was Muhammad, considerate and compassionate at heart. (See Sirat Ibn Hisham, and Tabaqaat Ibn Sa’d).

“Historical records show that all the contemporaries of Mohammad both friend and foe, acknowledged the sterling qualities, the spotless honesty, the noble virtues, the absolute sincerity and every trustworthiness of the apostle of Islam in all walks of life and in every sphere of human activity.”

K. S. Ramakrishna Rao, Mohammed The Prophet

Before revelation Arabia (Honor Killing)

Infanticide 

Infanticide was a practice in old Arabia; some tribes valued sons over daughters for defending the tribe. The girls carried the potential shame to the family and the tribe. The father of the newly born baby can either live with guilt for not burying his daughter alive or conduct infanticide.  Typically, Infanticide is done shortly after birth, but in the case of the next story, the father is believed to have been away for several years and had conducted his evil act when he returned.  His daughter was then about four years old. Children at such age are most pleasant to the family, but despite her admiration and trust of her father, he buried her alive.

(Maysarah ibn Ma!bad said)

A man came to Prophet Muhammad and said, “We were people of Jahiliyya arrogance and pride, and we worshipped idols and killed our children. I had a daughter, and she was always delighted when I called her. So, one day I called her, and she followed me. I took her to a hole dug by my parents. I pushed her into it while she was calling me ‘Daddy, daddy.’ But I continued to pile dirt on her…. ‘Daddy, Daddy!’ were her last words to me.

The narrator described the Prophet’s eyes with tears rolling down his cheeks, and as he was wiping out the tears, he said: Had it not for God’s mercy preceded His punishment, He would have tormented you.” (Sunan al Darami, V1 page 3)

Who else other than her dad does this little four-year-old girl expect protection and compassion from? Awkwardly, the expected father’s kindness was a stiffened deadly heart.

One of the pledge conditions, Muhammad made with the 70 Medinan people for embracing Islam, was to commit no infanticide. of Muhammad’s reforms outlawing such a practice. He had said: “al Wa’id, conducting infanticide is destined to the Hill Fire.”  Al-Bukhari and Imam Ahmad   https://islamqa.info/ar/160798

The Prophet also taught:
“God forbade you from disobedience of mothers, and infanticide..”  Bukhari and Muslim

وورد في الصحيحين البخاري ومسلم عن المغيرة بن شعبة رضي الله عنه قال:قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “إنّ الله حرّم عليكم عقوق الأمهات ووأد البنات ومنع وهات وكره لكم قيل وقال وكثرة السؤال وإضاعة المال”.
http://ahlakora.ahlamontada.com/t109-topic

10ـ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : (( مَنْ وُلِدَتْ لَهُ ابْنَةٌ فَلَمْ يَئِدْهَا وَلَمْ يُهِنْهَا وَلَمْ يُؤْثِرْ وَلَدَهُ عَلَيْهَايَعْنِي الذَّكَرَ أَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ بِهَا الْجَنَّةَ ))[12]

6ـ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : (( لا يَكُونُ لأَحَدِكُمْ ثَلاثُ بَنَاتٍ أَوْ ثَلاثُ أَخَوَاتٍ فَيُحْسِنُ إِلَيْهِنَّإِلا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ ))[7]

13ـ عن جابر بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : (( مَنْ كُنَّ لَهُ ثَلاثُ بَنَاتٍ يُؤْوِيهِنَّ وَيَرْحَمُهُنَّ وَيَكْفُلُهُنَّ وَجَبَتْلَهُ الْجَنَّةُ الْبَتَّةَ ، قَالَ قِيلَ : يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ اثْنَتَيْنِ ؟ قَالَ : وَإِنْ كَانَتْ اثْنَتَيْنِ ، قَالَ : فَرَأَى بَعْضُ الْقَوْمِ أَنْ لَوْ قَالُوا لَهُ وَاحِدَةًلَقَالَ وَاحِدَةً ))[15]

3ـ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ : (( جَاءَتْنِي مِسْكِينَةٌ تَحْمِلُ ابْنَتَيْنِ لَهَا ، فَأَطْعَمْتُهَا ثَلاثَ تَمَرَاتٍ فَأَعْطَتْ كُلَّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِنْهُمَا تَمْرَةً ، وَرَفَعَتْإِلَى فِيهَا تَمْرَةً لِتَأْكُلَهَا ، فَاسْتَطْعَمَتْهَا ابْنَتَاهَا ، فَشَقَّتْ التَّمْرَةَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تُرِيدُ أَنْ تَأْكُلَهَا بَيْنَهُمَا ، فَأَعْجَبَنِي شَأْنُهَا ، فَذَكَرْتُ الَّذِيصَنَعَتْ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ : ” إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَوْجَبَ لَهَا بِهَا الْجَنَّةَ أَوْ أَعْتَقَهَا بِهَا مِنْ النَّارِ ” ))(4) 

4-عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : (( مَنْ عَالَ جَارِيَتَيْنِ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَا جَاءَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَنَا وَهُوَ وَضَمَّأَصَابِعَهُ ))[5]

 Curving people from such criminal act, Prophet Muhammad encouraged them to raise girls. He guaranteed Heaven for raising, with kindness and compassion one, two, three or more girls.

He used to carry his granddaughter to the Mosque. He even took her during the prayer. As he prays, she climbed on him, on his back and shoulders. Not for a minute, he disturbed her exuberant jo

http://articles.islamweb.net/media/index.php?page=article&id=180805

 

فقال رسول الله وهو يمسح دموع: ((لولا أن سبقت رحمة الله غضبه لعجل الله لك 

العذاب)).

 “Muhammad was more than honest, he was a human to the marrow of his bones, he was a human sympathy, and human love was the music of his soul… to serve humanity, to elevate humanity, to purify humanity, to educate humanity, in a word to humanize people, this was the object of his mission.”  Prof K. S. Ramakrishna Rao. Professor of Philosophy and Parapsychologist (born 1932) Ref 2 157

Spirituality and Connection with God

Prophet Muhammad’s spiritual life and his closeness to God understood from his love for prayers, especially nightly prayers. At night Prophet Muhammad connects with God through long prayers and devotions. Sometimes his feet swills up from the long-standing. He had said to his companions, “The peak of my delight is in the Salah, the formal prayer.” He experiences comfort and tranquility in the prayers. When the prayer time approaches, he would say to Bilal (the caller to start the Prayer) “Comfort us with it, oh Bilal.” As if the Prophet was longing for an opportunity to self-soothing and heart tranquilizing, and prayer is the media for this beautiful occasion.

The Prophet taught, Cleansing the heart from sins and purifying it with love of God, and His attributes is a way to become closer to God. He said. “There lies within the body a piece of flesh. If it is sound [in purity,] the whole body is sound; and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt. Verily this piece is the heart.”

Thikru-Allah, or engaging the heart and mind in the remembrance and connection with God is the gate to the purification of the soul. Learning and pondering the attributes of God, contemplating the universe, and other creations of God build hearts with greater awareness of God, often described as piety. The Prophet Muhammad said: “[indeed] Piety is here, piety is here pointing to his chest.” Emphasizing the significance of the heart, he taught, “[Indeed] God does not look at your [physical] images, but He looks at your hearts. He told the Muslims that God said: “The world is not large enough for My accommodation. However, my servent’s heart is.”

Prophet Muhammad spiritual examples helped cleansing people’s evil-commanding selves; purifying their hearts to accommodate God, and in doing so, he raised people to a higher standard of living, enjoining ethics and morality with beautiful hearts, spirits, minds, and souls.

 

Muhammad An Inspiration for Peace

Preventing Violence
Before the Archangel Gabriel came to him in that cave calling for him to read by God’s command, it was within his nature to be a fair judge, and who’s judgments often averted typical conflicts that could easily flair out of control resulting in bloodshed, lasting for years and years.

The Ka’ba was respected as the holiest site for the Arabs, as it was one of the first buildings built in Mecca by Abraham and his son Ishmael. What’s more, it was the center of spiritual and economic prosperity for all people in Arabia. At about 600 CE, the Ka’ba stone structure received damage from a major storm and flooding that deemed for a more considerable reconstruction. “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaaba”

In 605 CE, four influential tribes commissioned a renovation of the Ka’ba. Upon completion of the project there opened a dispute among the elders of the four major tribes in Mecca as to who was owed the honor of placing the black stone into the northeasterly corner of it.

Islamic tradition holds that the Black Stone fell from heaven as a guide for Adam and Eve to build an altar.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Stone

There at the final stages of the renovation came the ceremonial placement of the sacred Black Stone in its niche. Each of the four tribal elders argued that they were worthier than the other in placing the stone in the corner niche of the Ka’ba. The argument escalated to such an intensity that the tribe “Banu Abd ad-Dar” brought a pot of blood symbolically dipping their hands in it as a sign to the other tribes, that they would spill blood to claim the honor of placing the stone in its place.

With the last desperate attempt at a reasonable solution the four elders agreed to accept the judgment of the first man to enter the Sacred Ka’ba, and to the delight of all the elders, Muhammad appeared.

All were in agreement as Muhammad’s reputation preceded him, and they all knew that any judgment from such a man would be fair.

Muhammad asked for a simple cloak asking the four elders to grasp the four corners where he placed the black stone in the middle leveling the honor of putting the stone to each respective tribe. Once they arrived at the niche, he raised the stone to it. Thus, avoiding a conflict that would have soured relations between the tribes for the times to come.

Muhammad evaded violence with Quraysh despite their repeated attacks and tortures of the Muslims to keep the community in peace, safe and beautiful. 

In the early years of Islam, Muslims were condemned, harassed and tortured by the Meccans Idolators, who held prime positions and the large businesses of the city. This torture was carried out in many forms: from verbal and physical abuse, imprisonment, burning, suffocation, execution to crucifixion. Despite the intense mistreatment of the Muslims and the demand by his companions for retaliation, the Prophet held back and instructed his followers for no reprisals nor revenge.

Instead, he pursued peaceful alternatives. He asked some of his wealthy companions to purchase the servants and slaves, under torture and set them free. He conducted meetings with his friends, secretly at the house of Ibn al-‘Arqm. He asks people to exercise patience, not be hasty.

To stop the Pagan’s assaults on the Muslims as they performed their prayers, Prophet Muhammad asked his companions to read their prayers silently instead of loudly, and not to proclaim their faith so as not to provoke Quraysh, inducing ugliness and violence at the sacred House.

In silently reading the prayers, some believes, Prophet Muhammad, modified the form of worship to eliminate hostility and violence and institute beauty, goodness, and Godliness.

For those companions who were still captives by their masters, the Prophet instructed them to exercise patience, and for some others who could not endure torture, he sought for them refuge in Abyssinia. There they received protection from the Christian King, Negus. The Prophet Muhammad sought Muslim protection by the Christian King, since the Qur’an confirms Christianity and Judaism, and the Prophet expects collaboration.

Building not Destroying

Prophet Muhammad often times prevented violence by cutting off its root elements, such as arguments and discords.
About the beginning of the 4th year after the first revelation, Muhammad received a Revelation to announce his prophethood to his immediate clan of Banu Hashim. Responding to God’s command, he invited 45 of his relatives to a meal at his home. After the dinner, as Muhammad began to speak about his appointed mission, his Uncle Abu Lahab interrupted him, saying, “I have not seen a person who has brought his people more evil thing than what you have brought to your people.”

Despite the magnitude of Abu Lahab’s slam and rejection, Muhammad’s reaction was calm. He had said not a single word to his uncle in response. Better yet, to prevent follow-on disputes in the matter, he politely said to his attendees, “if you ate, you might leave.” In doing so, he diminishes the chances of rift and quarrel.

Muhammad was keen to see that no split amongst the attendees is made. Ranchor defies the core purpose of his faith.  Dr. Abu El Fadl in his book, “The Great Theft Wrestling Islam from the Extremists,” described the Muslim belief as to “building the earth with benevolence, compassion, justice, peace, and Godliness. The more disgust and corruption permeate the earth, the further away the earth is from Godliness.”

More importantly, Muhammad wanted no one person to miss the fountain of knowledge, and the light he had for them, including his uncle, Abu Lahab.

The Prophet’s better reaction to the failed announcement attempt was to invite the same people again, including his uncle Abu Lahab, over to another meal. This time, the Prophet did deliver his speech, which in part says:

“O sons of Abd Al Muttalib, I know of no Arab who has come to his people with a nobler message than what I have brought. I have brought you the best of this world and the next. God ordered me to invite you to Him. Will you answer His call and support me?”

Only the young Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Prophet’s cousin responded and embraced Islam. Although his uncle Abu Talib did not embrace Islam but promised him protection. What was unfortunate was his uncle Abu Lahab, who kept on opposing him.

The Prophet’s calmness ingeniously helped cut down violence, quarrels, hatred and divisions at their roots. Instead, he permeates the earth with compassion and Godliness.

Pursuing Changes Peacfully—Reconciliation with the Quraysh
Even after Muhammad and the majority of the Muslims escaped Quraysh’s harassments and persecution by migrating to Medina, Quraysh continued to undermine them for the next six years. Quraysh enmity campaign came to an end when Muhammad entered into a peace treaty with them known as Al Hudaybiyah Peace treaty. Muhammad had chosen to compromise and reconciliation despite all-out oppositions. He was deviating from Arabia’s tribal norm of arrogance, revenge, and warring to the death.


Karen Armstrong in her book, Muhammad, a Biography of the Prophet, described Muhammad excellent move for compromising with Quraysh, stating:
“But the very idea that Muhammad would have found anything to be
optimistic about in the carnage committed in his name on September
11th is an obscenity, because, as I try to show in these pages, Muhammad spent most of his life trying to stop that kind of indiscriminate slaughter. In imagining that the holy war was the culmination of his career, the fundamentalists have distorted the whole meaning of his life.
….. Muhammad was a peacemaker, who risked his life and nearly lost his closest companions because he was so determined to effect a reconciliation with Mecca. Instead of fighting an intransigent war to the death, Muhammad was prepared to negotiate and to compromise. And this apparent humiliation and capitulation proved, in the words of the Qur’an, to be a great victory (fat-‘h[ meaning the opening, not just victory]).”…


Impressed with Muhammad’s actions and person, Karen Armstrong continued to writ: “If we could view Muhammad as we do any other important historical figure we would surely consider him to be one of the greatest geniuses the world has known.”
– Karen Armstrong, Muhammad, A Biography of the Prophet. HarperSanFrancisco, 1993.

The Breach of the Hudaybiah Treaty

Two years after the Hudaybiyah treaty was signed, Quraysh broke the truce by attacking a tribe from the Muslims camp and killing 20 people. The Prophet Muhammad decided to enter Mecca for the treaty breaking, however, peacefully without bloodshed.

Muhammad’s Tactics of Prevention of A Major War: The Opening of Mecca. 

Prophet Muhammad was about to accomplish the impossible. The returning to his birth city, Mecca. Mecca the city that opposed his mission for 18 years, bucked him out and persecuted and crucified his people. He was about to face the people who carry anger, hate, and would enter into a bitter fight with him at any price. He would come to them dressed with benevolence, no rancher or demeanors. 

To accomplish his peaceful re-entry plans, he told his intention of entering Mecca to a few of his companions. As Muhammad assembled the 10,000-strong army. He did not inform them of the intended destination. He installed checkpoints around the city and the routes leading into Medina. Thus, eliminating any news going to Mecca about the preparation ongoing in Medina.

As the march closes in on Mecca in the evening, the Prophet ordered thousands of fires let implicating overwhelming forces surrounding the city. Dissuading the Meccan leaders for no move to combat the Muslims, was only a ploy for peaceful entry.

The plans of entering Mecca, peacefully, was about to chatter, the Prophet rectified the disruption. One of the army divisions leaders, Sa’ad ibn Ubadah, shouting a slogan of  intimidation,“Today is the day of the slaughter.” The Prophet ordered that the slogan change to “Today is the day of mercy.” He replaced the commander Sa’ad by his father, further avoiding any crack within his forces due to the change in the leadership. The Prophet’s move did not only assure the Meccans security and wellbeing but maintained the harmony in the army’s command.

The Prophet instructed his uncle, Al ‘Abbass, to bring Abu Sufyan, the leader of Quraysh, to meet Muhammad and to observe the many Arab tribes, who joined the Muslims camp. This observation may further persuade Abu Sufyan to accept to surrender. The plan’s outcome was successful. Abu Sufyan accepted to surrender.  The Prophet promised him of the Meccans safety. More importantly, he eases for them the escape to safety. Muhammad asked Abu Sufyan to announce to the Meccans his peace guarantees in the following:

“Anyone enters the house of Abu Sufyan is safe.”
“Anyone stays inside his house is safe.”
“Anyone enters the Sacred House of God is safe.”
“Anyone drops his weapon is safe.”

And so it was; the Prophet’s plan for entering Mecca in peace was a reality. No fight, and no bloodshed.

For diffusing the highly dangerous city, the preventing of imminent violence, with gratitude to God, Muhammad entered the Holy City with his head bowed down in humility.  An extreme disruption to the inhabitants of the city is behind. His persistent jihad in maintaining the peace paid off. Completing God’s favor on him for such blissful outcome, he called upon the Meccans and graciously gave them his amnesty: “Go about (wherever you please), for you are set free.”. Seerah V2 208

Muhammad’s action in forgiving the Meccans was magnanimous since he was at the peak of his power and he could have easily crushed them. In contrast, the Meccans, at the height of their power, executed the Muslims who were weak and defenseless.

Commenting on the Prophet Muhammad’s move, Dr. John Esposito said: “The genius of the Prophet here as a leader is very interesting because he did not choose what many at that time would have chosen; that is to simply subdue and then to slaughter, in a way to get revenge to retaliate and get back, but rather he took the high ground.”

Violence and Corruption Attributed to Zulm (Grate Injustice)
Prophet Muhammad’s avoidance of violence is crucial to understand. Violence and disruption of peaceful communities, cities or nations yield Zulm or great injustice. Violence in itself is an intrusion on the rights-to-peace of a host of creations that are not part of the violence. Since by the nature of disruption, it affects all sectors of the normal life and progression in the community or the nation. Furthermore, stability and continuity are the grounds of civilization and prosperity. We learn from the Qur’an that it was God’s favor on the Quraysh of Mecca that He had favored them by granting them peace and security, after fear, and feeding them after hunger. The favored mechanism, the Qur’an states, was done through peaceful accords and covenants with the Romes, Persians and the Arab tribes along the trade routes between Greater Syria and Yemen. God’s revelation states:

In modern days, community and nations disruption can include the use of explosives, assassinations, violent coups, violent revolutions, and violent civil wars.

We turn to Dr. Khled Abu El Fadl, a

professor of Islamic Law at UCLA, in his book, “The Great Theft- Wrestling Islam from the Extremists,” to explains Islam’s point of view of war and jihad.

Jihad
“The concept of Jihad in Islam is often misused and misunderstood. Some [mine] “Muslim statements and conducts have made the concept of jihad more confusing and even chaotic.” Pg 220 Jihad, especially as perpetrated in the Western Media and as exploited by the terrorists, is often associated with the idea of holy war that is propagated in the name of God against unbelievers, and is often equated with the most vulgar images of religious intolerance.”

The word Jihad literarily means “to strive, to apply oneself, to struggle, to persevere.” It is equal to strong spiritual and material work ethics. “Piety, knowledge, health, beauty, truth, and justice are not possible without sustained and diligent hard work. Therefore, cleansing oneself from vanity and pettiness, pursuing knowledge, curing the ill, feeding the poor, and standing up for truth and justice, even at great personal risk, are all forms of jihad.”

“The Prophet Muhammad repeatedly taught that the greatest form of jihad is to struggle against one’s own base desires ….. By the same logic, striving or working hard in war, provided that the war is just and good, is also jihad.”

The term “Holy war,” which was coined during the Christian Crusades, cannot be equated to jihad. “War in Islam is never holy;” he stated,” it is either justified or not—and when justified is used as the last resort.”

War
Dr. El Fadl states:
“According to the Qur’an, a war might be necessary, and might even become binding and obligatory, but it is never a moral and ethical good.”

The Qur’an does not use the word jihad to refer to warfare or fighting; such acts are referred to as qital. While the Qur’an’s call to jihad is unconditional and unrestricted, such is not the case for qital. Jihad is a good in and of itself, while qital is not. Jihad is good because it is like the Protestants work ethic: hard work toward a good cause. Qital—war—however, is a different matter altogether. Every reference in the Qur’an to qital is restricted and limited to a particular condition; but exhortations to jihad, like the reference to justice or truth, are absolute and unconditional. On every single occasion that the Qur’an exhorts Muslims to fight, it hastens to qualify the exhortation by a command to the believers to not transgress, to forgive, or to seek peace.

The human soul is sacred, the Prophet Muhammad taught. No soul shall be drained except in due process.

One of the five gravest sins, he said, is the slaying of souls. One is considered greatly sinful, even if his contribution to a slaying is a one-half word. The implication is one should be as far away as possible from any involvement leading to killing and murdering people.

“Any who assists in shedding a Muslim’s blood, even as small as half of a word he shall meet God written on his forehead ‘Hopeless from the mercy of God’.” -Ibn Majah, al Bayhaqi, Abu Ya’la

During an expedition to Mayfa’ah, Usamah ibn Zayd, a beloved companion of the Prophet had killed a man, who professed faith. The Prophet was very disturbed as he learned of the killing. Usamah’s argument was the man declared Islam as a tactic. Prophet Muhammad asked Usama, “Did you open his heart [to see if what he said was a ploy]?” Usama’s answered, “How can read his heart O Messenger of God.” The Prophet replied, “You did not believe what he said, nor do you know how to read his heart, then why did you kill him?” The Prophet addressed Usama, saying: “ Who is it to protect you from God, repeating it three times.”  Seerah V2 167

This shows how disturbing is the act of mercer in Islam.

No sooner the Prophet sent his son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib with a large sum of blood-money to the deceased’s family in compensation to their dead.

Mercy on the Battlefield
It is one thing to ask for mercy for your opponent during ordinary times, but to ask for mercy on your enemy during the battlefield, that is above and beyond human goodness. During the battle, of Uhud for example, the Muslims in a state of defeat, the Prophet with a few of his companions defending him. The crowded Meccans attackers injured in his face and forehead. Finding the Prophet in this condition, covered in blood, some of his worried companions said: O Prophet of God won’t you curse them? His reply was, “I was not sent as a curser, but I was sent as a mercy. O Allah guide my people; for they know not what are they doing.” Bukhari P 202

Promotion of Good Customs

Before Islam, Muhammad participated in Quraysh’s social justice program and later endorsed it in Islam. He attended a meeting with his uncles for assisting helpless and abused people by their masters, or the tyrannical leaders of Mecca. After the revelation of Islam, the Prophet stated: “I witnessed in the house of ibn Jud’an, the Fudhool Alliance for helping the oppressed, and if I was to be called to participate it in Islam, I will participate.” Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah

Accepting People’s Goodness

The Prophet Muhammad believed that people have good customs ethics and manners and that he was sent to complete such goodies.

“Indeed, I was sent to complete the best of ethics.” –MASNAD AHMAD Page 147
In fact, Allah commanded him to do so. 7:199

“(O Muhammad) Resort to pardon, and enjoin urff, the sound customs, but withdraw from the ignorant ones.

“Indeed, I was sent to complete the good standards.”
بُعث ُت لت ًمم مكارم األخًلق –Mati’ Imam malik Page 147

Abu Dujannah v1 417

Muhammad Used Social Customs Bridge and Build Friendship

-Muhammad used a highly respected, social blood-tie in marriage to strengthen his cause and unite his people. In Arabia, a marriage between members of two different tribes is considered an honorable act and establishes a secure bond between the two tribes, and the groom would be honored and protected by the entire tribe of the bride. Any animosity and bad ties would then be eradicated.

Dr. John Esposito of Georgetown University states: “The marriages of the Prophet occurred for a number of reasons; he married widows and women with no protection but he was also involved in marriages that cemented relationships with other tribes.”

-Muhammad married a Jewish lady, Sufiy-yah, the daughter of the chief of the Nud-dair tribe. The Prophet also married a Christian lady, Maria. He married Umu Salamah from the Makhzum clan of Quraysh, he married Juwayriyah the daughter of the leader of Mustaliq tribe.

-Prophet Muhammad married his worst enemy’s daughter, the widowed Ummu Habeebah, daughter of Abu Sufyan, in order to demolish and diminish her father’s animosity to Islam. When her father learned about Muhammad’s marriage from his daughter, he said: “The healthy (male) camel is not to be prevented from mating with the she-camel.” This language is not near his earlier stands against Muhammad, which included several plots to kill him.
These marriages are symbols showing that Islam transcends barriers, builds bridges and relationships with other communities as well as other religions.

In Medina Prophet Muhammad learned of the Jews fasting in the day of Ashura, the day Moses was saved from the Pharos, he said this day is as important a day for Muslims, so he fasted that day. So Muslims, all over the world, fast on this day.

A chronological timeline of the marriages reveals the roles of unity and peace. The Prophet married his first wife Khadijah, at age 25 when she was a widow at age 40. He stayed monogamous until she died when he was 50. After that, he married Sawdah, but after the age of 53, during the reconciliation with Quraysh and the tribes surrounding Medina, he married his other wives. These marriages were instrumental in bonding relationships, advancing his cause, and ending violence.

The underlying of Muhammad’s work is that people should create social bonds to foster build upon, as yet, non-existent relationships.

What about Muhammad’s Relations with People of Ethnicities
Did Muhammad enforce other ethnic people to embrace Islam? The answer is a simple no.

Muhammad’s duty was to deliver Islam, not to enforce it on anyone:

“You [Muhammad] are not bound to do more than deliver the message [entrusted to you]…” Qur’an 42:48

“There is no compulsion in religion.”

In fact, and, contrary to extremists and fanatics’ claim, Islam treasures the freedom of belief.

“Say: (It is) the truth from the Lord of you (all). Then whosoever will let him believe, and whosoever will let him disbelieve.” Qur’an 18:2

The freedom of belief’s philosophy is weaved in the fabric of Islamic doctrines. Dr. Mustapfa Zayd alAzhary1 in his two 600 pages volumes, “The Abrogated Verses of the Qur’an,” states that there are 141 verses in the Qur’an supporting the freedom of belief, and the sanctioning of authoritative means over belief.

And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed – all of them entirely.
Then, [O Muhammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers?
 Qur’an, 10:99

Proofs have come unto you from your Lord, so whoso sees,
it is for his own good, and whoso is blind is blind to his own harm.
And I am not (here) to watch over your doings.
 Qur’an, 6:104

 

Jews and Christians
In seven century Arabia, Jews, Christians and other Arab tribes were a one-like community. All were dependents of the Abrahamic path. It is for this very fact Muhammad anticipated the collaboration of the Jews and Christians in defending the Muslims from the Isolators’ aggression.

Karen Armstrong in her book, Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time, stated: “Arabs did not feel it necessary to convert to Judaism or Christianity because they believed that they were already members of the Abrahamic family…Everybody knew that Arabs and Jews were kin.

What is interesting to learn is the story behind the “no compulsion in religion.” This revelation came not because Muslims are forcing Christian or Jews into Islam, but rather the opposite.

Some Arabian tribes used to send their children to Jewish tribes for education since Jewish and Christian have the Scripture.

After the revelation of Islam, some Muslims parents wanted their children to be like them, Muslims. It was then, and on account of Muslims parents wanted their children to become Muslims, this verse was revealed.

We see more of Muhammad’s benevolent principles regarding Jews and Christians

The Prophet Muhammad also said: “Let it be known, if anyone (Muslim) commits injustice, insults, aggravates, mistreats or abuses a person of the People of the Book (protected, by the state or an agreement), he will have to answer to me (for his immoral action) on the Day of Judgment.” Izzeddin Blaque, Minhaj Alsaliheen, 106

He also said: “Whoever kills a person of the People of Covenant (such as Jews and Christian or people of others creeds or philosophy) with whom there is a covenant between them and Muslims, he or she will not enter Paradise.” Bukhari, 3166

Muhammad’s Covenant with the Christians of the World

Many Christian tribes accepted Islam, yet others did not. An example would be the delegation of the tribes of Najran (located between Yemen and Mecca) visited the Prophet in his mosque for two weeks.

While dialogue between Prophet Muhammad and the Christian delegation the Prophet allowed them to practice their faith freely in the mosque.

At the end of the dialogue, the Christian delegation chose to remain Christian. The Prophet accepted their decision and gave them a letter assuring their freedom of worship and the safety of their homes, churches, and towns.

“Our covenant with Najran is that they are under the protection of God and his Prophet. Najran’s homes, churches, monks, priests, their present and absent and alliance shall be safe…”

The same covenant has been addressed by Dr. Morrow in his book, The Prophet Muhammad’s Covenants to the Christians of the World.

Woman Status and Reform
The advent of Prophet Muhammad restored women dignity in three ways:
1- Raised her status in the society to that of men.

The Prophet Muhammad rightly reintroduced her with honor and respect, from inferiority, ignorance, and superstition.

“Only a man of noble character will honor women, and only a man of base intentions will dishonor them.” He said. Kanz al-Ummal, 16/371.
“The best among you is he who is best to his family. For my family, I am the best of all of you.” Ibn Majah, Sunan 1/636.
Prophet Muhammad also said:   “Women are the partners of men.” Abu Dawud, Sunan, 1/61.

Anas reported: “A servant lady would take the hand of Muhammad and speak to him. He serves her…   ?    Bukhari

2- Prophet Muhammad dignified the role of motherhood. A man came to Prophet Muhammad and asked him:

“Oh Messenger of God, who rightfully deserves the best treatment from me?” “Your mother,” replied the Prophet.

“Who is next?” asked the man. “Your mother,” said the Prophet.

“Who comes next?” the man asked again. “Your mother,” replied the Prophet.

“Who is after that?” insisted the man. “Your father,” said the Prophet.” Al Bukhari, 10/329.

Children obedience of mothers is a duty, Prophet demanded, “Heaven lies beneath the feet of mothers.” Al Suyuti 1/536.

Earning Paradise also comes from listening and treating mothers well.

3- With Islam, women’s rights to inherit wed and divorce became a fact. The Prophet taught that women’s consent is a condition of the validation of marriage.

The Qur’an states: “Men shall have a share of what their parents and kinsmen leave; women shall have a share of what their parents and kinsmen leave; whether it be little or much, it is legally theirs.” Qur’an, 4:7.

The Prophet With his family
His wife Aisha reported, “The Prophet was extremely modest, he mended his own sandals, patched his clothes, milked his she-camel, and served his family.” Masnad Ahmad

She also told us a little story, “I was out with the Prophet on a trip when he told the group to go ahead and proceed walking. He then asked me to race with him. I beat him but that was when I was light and skinny. Time passed and I gained weight and became heavy. Again, on one of his trips, he called for the people to keep walking and asked me to race with him. He beat me. Then he laughed and said, “this for that: you won then, I win now.” Abu Dawood and Ahmad

When she was asked about the Prophet’s character ‘Aisha respond: “His mannerism was the best of people’s, it was [same as the] Qur’an: He gets cheerful because of it and exasperated because of it, he spoke not immorality nor tempts it, he was not loud yeller in the marketplace and returns not bad with bad, but he overlooks and forgives.”  P146.

Similarly, Anita Rai (born 1975)
Rai, Anita, Muhammad, Uncovering the True Story, 2007, Ref. 2 page 159

“For me, it is enough that Muhammad is the greatest feminist the world has so far had but has so little come to know of… Personally, I am infinitely grateful to Muhammad, who has not only empathized with the crying voice of the despairing and exploited woman but has taken momentous measures blustering all opposition, to alleviate her lot and strengthen her in realistic terms.

For ages and ages, a woman had found herself begging and groveling in front of her male master, with her heart-wrenching pleas for justice remaining unheard and unaddressed. Muhammad had changed this forever. Muhammad had pulled the woman out of her embarrassing position. Muhammad had lifted her from her servitude to man to being her own master. Muhammad had turned her from a beggar to a rightful taker and a strong stakeholder. Muhammad had carefully listened to her sorrows and her woes. Muhammad had heard her out with loving patience, compassion, and his heart overflowing with kindness and understanding. Muhammad had addressed her complaints as per divine ordinance even before she complained. Muhammad had found where she was hurting and arranged for her to heal. Muhammad had found for her, her lost identity. Muhammad had acquainted her with her real status and significance. Muhammad had presented to woman, her individuality and pride as gifted by God. Muhammad had won over for the woman what was seized from her somewhere along the way–her respect and her rights. Muhammad got woman her freedom. Muhammad transformed the woman from being a non-entity to a confident individual. Muhammad brought back to woman her glory. Muhammad was and remains the unrivaled champion of a woman.” In all these departments of activities, he is like a hero!

The Prophet’s Understanding of Her Emotions
Understanding her individuality, emotions, and pride as gifted by God, he accommodates women’s wants, needs, and feelings. Upon returning from days mission, Prophet Muhammad used to camp outside the city to give the uncombed ladies a chance to comb their hair, freshen up. and prepare themselves for their husbands. ” Seerah V2 33

 

Muhammad, an Example of Mercy and Forgiveness 
To Muslims, Muhammad was sent as a mercy to the worlds. His message comes with mercy came to humanity and the worlds. He exercised and taught leniency, forgiveness, and compassion for all forms of life.

“At the conquest of Mecca, he stood at the zenith of his power. The city which had refused to listen to his mission, which had tortured him and his followers, which had driven him and his people into exile and which had unrelentingly persecuted and boycotted him even when he had taken refuge in a place more than 200 miles away, that city now lay at his feet.

By the laws of war, he could have justly avenged all the cruelties inflicted on him and his people. But what treatment did he accord to them? Mohammad‘s heart flowed affection, and he declared, “This day, there is no REPROOF against you, and you are all free.” “This day” he proclaimed, “I trample under my feet all distinctions between man and man, all hatred between man and man.

Dr. K. S. Ramakrishna Rao said describing Muhammad as he opened Mecca with no fight:

Attentiveness 

Anas ibn Malik, a Medina Companion of the Prophet, age 20, who served Muhammad for ten years, stated that he had never been scolded by the Prophet, even lightly; and he had never been put down about anything he did or did not do. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anas_ibn_Malik

عن أنس ـ رضي الله عنه ـ قال : ( كان رسول الله ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ من أحسن الناس خَلَقا ، فأرسلني يوما لحاجة ، فقلت : والله لا أذهب ، وفي نفسي أن أذهب لما أمرني به نبي الله ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ، فخرجت حتى أمر على صبيان وهم يلعبون في السوق ، فإذا رسول الله ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ قد قبضبقفاي من ورائي ، قال : فنظرت إليه وهو يضحك، فقال : يا أنيس ، أذهبت حيث أمرتك ؟ قال : قلت : نعم ، أنا أذهب يا رسول الله )  رواه مسلم .

وكان ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم يمازح أنس ـ رضي الله عنه ـ قائلا : ( يا ذا الأذنين ) رواه أبو داود .

Describing the ways the Prophet receives people, he said,

He used to accommodate people with a warm smile, and always returned greetings, and welcoming all who attended his meetings.

He further said: The Messenger of God would never withdraw his hand in handshake till the other person removed his own.

Telling about the way he cared for people, Anas said, a senior woman came to Muhammad and took him by his hand while taking time to tell her story. He sat with her patiently, and then helped her out with her issue.” (Bukhari)

The Prophet was caring in more ways than one: he used to visit the sick and infirmaries, attend funerals, helped widows, and the poor.”
Even to those whom he wanted to change conducted them in a respectful and dignified manner without embarrassing them.

The Prophet was always calm, without anger or frustration over his losses and damage to his property.

Anas and others reported that an unpolished Bedouin who approached the Prophet and aggressively pulled him toward himself by his cloak, so much so that the Prophet’s neck turned red as a result. The Bedouin said: “O Muhammad, give me of this [wealth], for you are not giving out of your wealth nor the wealth of your father!” The companions of the Prophet were furious and were about to punish the Bedouin. But the Prophet objected and said to them, please do not do anything to the man.” The, he took the Bedouin into his house gave from what he has and said to him, are you pleased, the man said give me more, the Prophet gave him more, and again said to him, are you pleased. This time, the Bedouin for the third time said give me more. Again, the Prophet give him more, saying are you pleased. At this point, the Bedouin said yes.”

The Prophet then told him, go to my companions and tell them that you are pleased with what you got, for they could have resentment against you. -Bukhari

The Prophet did not only give and give and give but more importantly, he removed any ill feelings between the Bedouin and his companions.

Prophet never turned down those in need of help.
Whenever someone in need asked the Prophet, he would be answered right away. If the demand is available, he will give it immediately. Otherwise, he would go and purchase it. If he had no money, he would buy it on credit, but he never let one leave empty-handed.  (–al Termizi)

James A. Michener writes about Muhammad:
“Orphaned at birth, he was always particularly solicitous [attentive, considerate] of the poor and needy, the widow and the orphan, the slave and the downtrodden [subjugated, oppressed].”  Ref 2 page 161

Serving those who helped his people.

Negus, the Christian king of Abyssinia, had acted kindly toward Muslim fleeing persecution in Mecca. Muslim emigration toAbbysinia was during the fourth year after the first revelation. Six years later, the King send a delegation to visit the Prophet in his exile outside of Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad personally, served them. -Ibn Ishaq and al Bayhaqi

The Prophet’s sense of justice and fairness. Al Bayhaqi and al Tabarani reported that Zayed ibn Sa’nah, a Jewish rabbi, said: “I used to come to Muhammad to (Atalataf) quietly observe [him] to find out if he is the expected Prophet cited in the Torah. I found all the signs except two. So, one day I sold him dates for which he said he would pay later. Instead of the appointed date, I went earlier and grabbed him from the ends of his cloak, jammed it at his neck, shook him [in intimidation], staring frowningly at him demanding: “Why did you [Muhammad] not pay me what you owe? By Allah, you, the sons of Abd al Muttalib are [always] delinquent [in your payments.]”

Umar who was standing by said: “You, the nemesis of Allah, did you say to the Messenger of Allah what I heard? By God because of our covenant [with you], I am restrained. Otherwise, I would have chopped off your head with my sword.” Zayed reports that the Prophet turned to Umar, calmly and with a smile said: “I and him (the Prophet and Zayed) needed better than what you presented O Umar, and would have asked me to pay him in time and advise him to collect his money gently.”

The Prophet then said: “Umar go pay him his due and an extra 20 measures of dates.” Umar said: “Why the extra measures, O Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet replied: “It is for the scare you gave him.”

When Umar gave Zayed his due and the extra dates, Zayed did not take the dates. Instead, he told Umar about the testing that he had conducted. Not only that, but he embraced Islam and gave half of his wealth to the poor.”


His Humor Inspiration
Sometimes he would joke with his people to give them the sense of ease and cheerfulness.
The Prophet (said: “Relieve the heart, give it breaks regularly.”

One of his Companions said, “I never encountered a person with a smiling face more than that of the Prophet,”

Someone asked the Prophet for a left. The Prophet responded I would give you a ride on the son of a she-camel. The man said, what should I do with the son of a she-camel, Oh Messanger of God? He said, what else give birth to camels.

“There was a man from the people of the desert. His name was Zahir bin Hizam (or bin Heraam). Likened by the Prophet and not of a pleasant appearance. The Prophet came to him one day, while he was selling his goods in the market. He placed his hands over his eyes from behind. Zahir turned and found it was the Prophet. Then the Prophet announced, who would like to buy a slave from me? Zahir said: O Messenger of Allah, you will find me unmarketable. The Prophet said, “But you are not unmarketable with Allah. You are precious to Allah.” 

A senior woman asked the Prophet to pray that she enters Heaven. He said, Oh Mother, no old women enter Paradise. As she was to leave weeping: He said to those around him. Tell her she will join Paradise young. He recited: Indeed, We have produced the women of Paradise in a [new] creation, and We made them pure virgins. 56:35-36

Understanding, children look forward to him, the Prophet used

 

الله بن المغيرة : سمعت عبد الله بن الحارث قال : ( ما رأيت أحدا أكثر تبسما من رسول الله ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ) رواه الترمذي .

http://www.alukah.net/sharia/0/98452/

وعنه أيضًا أن رجلاً استحمل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقال صلى الله عليه وسلم:

“إني حاملك على ولد ناقة”. فقال: يا رسول الله، ما أصنع بولد الناقة؟ فقال صلى الله عليه وسلم: “وهل تلد الإبل إلا النوق؟”[4].

مزاحه صلى الله عليه وسلم مع رجل من أهل البادية:

عن أنس رضي الله عنه: أن رجلاً من أهل البادية كان اسمه زاهر بن حرام، وكان يهدي للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الهدية من البادية، وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يحبه، وكان دميمًا، فأتاه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يومًا وهو يبيع متاعه، فاحتضنه من خلفه وهو لا يبصره، فقال: أرسلني من هذا؟ فالتفت، فعرف النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فجعل لا يألو ما ألزق ظهره بصدر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حين عرفه، وجعل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: مَن يشتري العبد؟ فقال: يا رسول الله، إذن والله تجدني كاسدًا، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: “لكن عند الله لست بكاسد، أنت غال”. وفى رواية: “أنت عند الله رابح”[5].

مزاحه صلى الله عليه وسلم مع زوجاته:

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أنها كانت مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في سفر وهي جارية، قالت: لم أحمل اللحم ولم أبدن. فقال لأصحابه: “تقدموا”. فتقدموا، ثم قال: “تعالي أسابقك”. فسابقته، فسبقته على رجلي، فلما كان بعد – وفي رواية: فسكت عني، حتى إذا حملت اللحم وبدنت ونسيت – خرجت معه في سفر، فقال لأصحابه: “تقدموا”. فتقدموا، ثم قال: “تعالي أسابقك”. ونسيت الذي كان وقد حملت اللحم، فقلت: كيف أسابقك يا رسول الله، وأنا على هذا الحال؟! فقال: “لتفعلن”. فسابقته فسبقني، فجعل يضحك ويقول: “هذه بتلك السبقة”[6].

مزاحه صلى الله عليه وسلم مع امرأة عجوز:

عن الحسن قال: أتت عجوز إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالت: يا رسول الله، ادع الله أن يدخلني الجنة. فقال: “يا أم فلان، إن الجنة لا تدخلها عجوز”. قال: فولت تبكي. فقال: “أخبروها أنها لا تدخلها وهي عجوز، إن الله تعالى يقول: ﴿ إنا أنشأناهن إنشاء * فجعلناهن أبكارًا * عربًا أترابًا ﴾ [الواقعة: 35 – 37][7].

مزاحه صلى الله عليه وسلم مع الأطفال:

روي عن عبد الله بن الحارث قال: كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصفُّ عبد الله، وعبيد الله، وكثير بن العباس، ثم يقول: “مَن سبق إليَّ فله كذا وكذا”. قال: فيستبقون إليه، فيقعون على ظهره وصدره، فيقبلهم ويلتزمهم”[8].

كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يداعب أصحابه ويقابلهم بالابتسامة وكان لايقول إلا حقاً وإن كان مازحاً. وفي يوم من الأيام جاءت امرأة عجوز من الصحابيات إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وقالت له: يارسول الله ادع الله أن يدخلني الجنة، فداعبهاصلى الله عليه وسلم قائلاً: إن الجنة لاتدخلها عجوز، فانصرفت العجوز باكية، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم للحاضرين: أخبروها أنها لاتدخلها وهي عجوز، إن الله تعالى يقول {إنَّا أنشأناهن إنشاءً فجعلناهن أبكاراً** أي أنها حين تدخل الجنة سيعيد اللهإليها شبابها وجمالها..” رواه الترمذي.

http://articles.islamweb.net/media/index.php?page=article&lang=A&id=114164

وأتى رجل إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فقال : يا رسول الله احملني، قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : (إنا حاملوك على ولد ناقة ، قال : وما أصنع بولد الناقة فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : وهل تلد الإبل إلا النوق) . رواه أحمد وأبو داود وصححه  الألباني .

أما مزاحه مع أهله ، ومداعبته لزوجاته ، وبناته ، فكان لهم نصيب وافر من خلقه العظيم في هذا الجانب المهم ، فكان يسابق عائشة رضي الله عنها ، ويقر لعبها مع صواحبها فعنها رضي الله عنها قالت : (كنت ألعب بالبنات عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وكان لي صواحب يلعبن معي فكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا دخل يتقمعن منه فيسربهن

إلي فيلعبن معي) . رواه البخاري.

http://www.alukah.net/sharia/0/98452/#ixzz56UBkUC6B

Moderation and Optimism

Moderation was Muhammad’s way of life.

Abu Hurayrah reported that the Prophet said, “The religion of Islam is [indeed] based on ease, no one challenges its ease wins. Accordingly, aim clearly; positively and harmoniously bring things closer together. Be optimistic anticipating goodness and rewarding results. Seek Allah’s assistance early morning and late in the day, and in the last portion of the night. Moderation, moderation in submission indeed accomplish objectives.”  –Bukhari

Fath-ul-Bari, Page 102, Vol 1).

When the Prophet sent out his missionaries, he would tell them to be positive, not negative, encourage, do not discourage.  Make things easy and straightforward, not complicated and challenging.”

Muhammad was not unmanageable or unsophisticated; instead, he always chose the more comfortable option.
Aishah reported that: “Whenever the Prophet had to choose between two options, he always opted for the easier choice.” (Al-Bukhari).

Gradual and Ease of Approach
Page 298

‘Islam is self-assured; apply it wisely-gradually [as opposed to irrationally] that may induce hatred to the worship of Allah. The hasty camel rider overburdening his beast to perish, he traveled no distance, nor left a riding-back for himself.” Al Bayhaqi

Ghulu is Excessiveness in Religion. He said excessiveness and extremeness lead to destruction.

“Be aware of Ghulu in religion,” he said, “What destroyed these before you is extremism in their religion,” Prophet Muhammad Warned.  Bukhari

The prophet also said: “The best of the religion to Allah is the simple straight-forward and easy (al Hanafiyatu al samhah).” Masnad Imam Ahmad and al Tabarani

Abu Hurayrah narrated that “the Prophet was once wearing a coarse mantle and a Bedouin pulled him very hard, so much so that the edges of the mantel left marks on his neck. Then the Bedouin said, “O Muhammad! Load for me on these two camels of mine with the wealth of Allah which you have, for you will not be loading anything of your own wealth nor the wealth of your father.” The Prophet remained silent for a moment then said, “The wealth belongs to Allah and I am His servant; O Bedouin! Shall I seek retribution for what you have done to me?” The Bedouin said, “No.” He said, “Why not?” The Bedouin said, “It is so because you do not reward evil with evil.” The Prophet smiled and then ordered for him dates to be loaded on one camel and barley on the other.” Abi Dawood, al bayhaqi and al Bukhari

 

His inner-soul simple-easy feelings of the prophet
Abu Huraira Narrates, “While we were sitting with the Prophet, a man came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have been ruined.” I have been ruined.” Allah’s Apostille asked what the matter was. He replied, “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.” Allah’s Apostle asked him, “Can you afford to free a slave?” He replied in the negative. Allah’s Apostle asked him, “Can you fast for two successive months?” He said no. The Prophet asked him, “Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He said no. The Prophet kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet. He asked, “Where is the questioner?” He replied, “I (am here).” The Prophet said (to him), “Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity.” The man said, “Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between its (i.e. Medina’s) two mountains who are poorer than I.” The Prophet smiled till his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, ‘Feed your family with it.” Muslim in his Saheeh, 285]

This story reflects Muhammad’s pure personality of goodness, understanding and unsophisticated inner-soul.  The man came to the Prophet expecting a punishment of some kind for breaking Allah’s rule in a ritual; but instead, he ended up with a gift to further spate to his wife and family.  Muhammad showed the man that faith is uplifting; it is peace in the heart and reasoning in the mind, flexible and easy in its obligation.

Volume 3, Book 31, Number 157:   or # 2457 

The Bedouin Who Urinated In The Mosque
Anas Bin Maalik said: While we were in the masjid with the Messenger of Allah, a Bedouin came; he then urinated in the masjid.
The Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, “Mah Mah (An expression used to severely scold someone, to indicate the graveness of a matter).”
The Messenger of Allah said, “Do not put a halt to his urination, but instead leave him.”
They left him alone until he finished urinating.
The Messenger of Allah called him over and said to him, “Urine or filth is not suitable for these mosques. Instead, they are only [appropriate] for the remembrance of Allah, the Prayers, and the recitation of the Qur’an,” or this is near to what the Messenger of Allah said.
The Prophet asked for a bucket of water and had it poured over the contaminated area.

The Prophet and his companions conducted a prayer. After the prayer, the Bedouin was reported to have said, “O Allah forgive me and this (i. e. Muhammad), and no one else.” The Prophet told him, “You have narrowed something very wide (i. e. The mercy of Allah).” [Related by Muslim in his Saheeh, 285], Bukhari

Volume 3, Book 31, Number 157:   or # 2457

 

Muhammad’s Character
Dr. Gustav Weil in “History of the Islamic People,”  states: (1808-1890)
“Muhammad was a shining example to his people. His character was pure and stainless…so unpretentious was he, that he would receive from his companions no special mark of reverence, nor would he accept any service from his slave which he could do for himself. He was accessible to all and at all times. He visited the sick and was full of sympathy for all. Unlimited was his benevolence and generosity as also was his anxious care for the welfare of the community.”  

Weil, Dr. Gustav in: Brockelmann, Carl (editor): History of the Islamic People, Cornwell 1947. Ref 2 Page 158

Story page 180 Bukhari’s version  (a Bedouin came into the Mosque along with his camel. He made it sit, and said: “Who of you is Muhammad? ….

Muhammad Treated Children with Delight

Typically, as he entered Medina from a distant trip, children would flock to greet him. He would receive them pleasantly and treat them with a ride, allowing the first two children that reached him first to ride on the back of his camel.

He used to kiss and embrace his grandchildren, Al Hassan and Al Hussain and play with them. Sometimes he would let them ride on his back, crawling on his knees, saying:  “What a good camel and what good saddlebags.” Al Tabarani, al Mugam al Kabeer. Ref 2 P 138
Seerah V2 411

The Prophet even hastened the Prayer for a Crying Child. It reported that the Someone said to him: ‘O Apostle of God, you made the prayer lighter today!’ He said: ‘I heard a child crying and I worry about his mother’s pain.’69

Story Page 178

Merciful To Animals
Prophet Muhammad cared for animals and instructed people to be merciful to them. The Prophet used to remind owners to ensure that their animals are not left hungry, thirsty,  overburden with heavy loads, or torture them.
Unlike the Arabian societies, Muhammad had compassion for each living creature. Animals were treated in a way that can break the heart. A painful ring was hung on camel’s necks or lip, during long journeys people cut into the veins of animals to drink their blood, or carve pieces of meat to eat. These practices were put to a definite end by Mohammed.

He forbade the practice of cutting tails and manes of horses, of branding animals at any sore spot, and of keeping horses saddled unnecessarily. (Muslim, Sahih Muslim).

If he saw any animal over-loaded or ill-fed, he would stop and tell the owner, “Be aware, Allah is watching you in your treatment of animals.”  (Abu Dawud, Kitab Jihad)

Muhammad Rerouted a whole army for the sake of animals
As his army marched towards Mecca, his birth city, to conquer it, they passed by a dog with her puppies. The Prophet (pbuh) re-routed the army and posted a guard to see that the dog and her puppies were not disturbed. He stated, “Verily, there is a heavenly reward for every act of kindness done to a living animal.”

The army of 10,000 people and the significance of the opening of Mecca, and of his sovereignty over Arabia did not lure the Prophet Muhammad to deprive a dog and here puppies from peace and safety.

-Sahl Bin al Hanthaliyah reported that the Prophet came by camels with their bellies reaching their backs. He said: “Be aware of God’s animal rights on you, ride them while they are healthy and slaughter them while they are healthy.” -Abu Dawood

-Anas reported that the Prophet greeted a group of people while having a conversation on the back of their camels, with their camels standing still. He said to them: “Ride them when they are healthy, and leave them to graze while they are healthy, and do not make of them chairs, you sit on.” -Masnad Imam Ahmad


Muhammad Responded to Grieving Birds
Ibn Masoud said: ‘During Arriqaa expedition, the Apostle of God, left to relieve himself. While waiting for him to return, one of his companions found a nest with chicks in it. He took the chicks out. The mother came flapping her wings in distress. When the Apostle of God returned and saw the bird, he said: ‘Who grieved this bird of her hatchlings? Return them to her.’ Sunan Abi Dawood, Seerah v2 34

During a journey, somebody picked up some birds eggs. The bird’s painful screech and fluttering attracted the attention of the Prophet (pbuh), who asked the man to place the eggs back. (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari).


The Prophet Taught Hunting was not for Sport.
Ibn Umar reported that the Prophet said: “Anyone who kills a bird or more without rightful purpose, except that Allah will question him about it on the Day of Resurrection.” It was said, “What is its rightful purpose O Prophet of God? He said: “Its rightful purpose is to slaughter it to eat it, not to discard it.” –al Nisaii and al-Hakim

Merciful to Slaughtered Animals 

The Prophet instructed people to sharpen their knives to slaughter animals and not frighten them.
Ibn Abbas reported that a man laid down a sheep to slaughter it while sharpening his knife before its eyes. The Prophet told him: “Do you want to kill it twice? Why did you not sharpen your knife before you laid it down?” -al Tabarani

The Prophet Taught not to Use Animals as Targets or to Fight
The Prophet warns about making a target of any living soul.
Ibn Umar, the Prophet said: “Allah blasphemies anyone who uses a soul as a tool or target.” Bukhari and Muslim
Ibn Abbas also said that the Prophet banned people from tempting animals to fight each other or excite them against each other.  Sunan Abi Dawood and al Termisy Tahreesh  page 232


The Prophet Warned Against Torturing Animals
Ibn Umar reported that the Prophet said: “A woman entered Hell because she tied down a cat; neither did she feed it, nor did she allow it to go out to feed on critters.” –Bukhari Page 232

There is Reward for the Caring of Animals.
Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, said, “Once a man was walking and was very thirsty. He went down to a well and drank from it. When he came back out he found a dog gasping, driven by thirst to eat mud. He said to himself, ‘This dog has reached the same state of thirst I was in.’ So he filled his leather sock from the well, held it by his mouth, climbed back up the well and let the dog drink.  For this act, Allah thanked the man and forgave him.” They said, “O Messenger of Allah, are we rewarded for caring for animals?” He said, “There is a reward for caring for every living soul [everything with a moist liver].”  2234 Bukhari  

 

 

Rituals and Reason

The Prophet taught that faith is based on reason, order, and discipline
On their way to Mecca, with 10,000 people, under the heat of the desert, Muslims were fasting. Occasionally the Prophet had sprinkle water on his head and face from the severity of the afternoon heat. After a few days of travel, and at the Oasis of Kadeed, the Prophet was told that people are having difficulty fasting, and are in consideration of your advice. The Prophet stood up on his camel, so that people can see him, asked for a pot of water, drank of it and broke his fast. After this, he was told that some people did not break their fast. His response was, “Those are disobedient, those are disobedient.” Seerah ve 205. Bukhari, Ibn Hisham.

The Prophet showed rites are part of a whole, sometimes the loser’s feeling brings down the morale and damages the groups’ high spirit for the in-equality among them.

Aisha reported: Work what can you take; Allah does not get uninterested (dispassionate) until you do, and the best of work to Allah is that which is continuous, even if little. Abi Daooud p 294

Muhammad’s Leadership and Management
Objectively and rationally is how Muhammad managed his affairs. He evaluated matters and solutions with reason. Paying attention to the proper way things done considering the right time, and in the right place. He demonstrated fine examples of leadership and management.

Examples
During the first three years following the first revelation, his missionary work was discrete. He selectively approached people from all the clans of Quraysh, who were receptive to his call.. If and when the Muslims go public, this diverse base of believers could serve as a deterrent-platform against attacks by Quraysh, as opposed to a group from a single tribe.

Examining his leadership role in Medina, one can see his ingenuity:

Firstly he built a mosque as a spiritual, social and community meeting center. Known today as the Prophet’s Sacred Mosque.

Secondly, he formed an accord of peace between two major tribes of Medina, who were at odds, and who were consumed by wars.

Thirdly, he drew a solution for the crisis of the Meccan emigrant Muslims with no money, homes or work. Moreover, many of those emigrants fell sick having no immunity against the diseases in the new environment. The Prophet establishes un unprecedented transitional league of brotherhood, where each Medinan Muslim took into his own household, a person from the emigrant Muslims as a brother.

Furthermore, he appointed a committee to adequately consider and match the new partnership qualifications and resources so that the outcome of the new joint can be productive and successful.

For example, a person with trade skills was suited with a merchant; a laborer was a match with a farmer; a family with children was matched with a learned emigrant, a handy man was paired to a skillful business, and so on. This matching scheme worked so well that after a year the project of the League of Brotherhood was no longer necessary, so the Prophet dissolved it.
In this transitional scheme, one can see the superb people selection process that the Prophet mastered in making the arrangement process as harmonious and as successful at the same time.

Fourth, he appointed a task clean up the city streets from the trash, collects it and to move it out to the country side.

The fifth was improving the water and irrigation systems in Medina. The Prophet, along with the city’s water drilling experts, drew up plans for drilling 54 water wells in and around the city. Upon its completion, water for the city and irrigation was plentiful. The Prophet issued land deeds for improvements to dead land. He said: “Any who improves a dead land, he will have the right to own it.”

Sixth, with the 13 Jewish tribes living in Medina, he forged a treaty known as sahifatu al-Medina, or the “Constitution of Medina,” which ensured everyone’s freedom and safety. In this constitution, people’s political rights, freedom of belief, freedom of enterprise and trade were protected. Also, this constitutional document spelled out individual citizen obligations, the sanctity of life, prevention of crime, laws of municipalities, and the dignity and equality of people governed by the law.

Such momentous tasks accomplished within two years demand ingenious design, planning, coordination, and management. Remembering such tasks are mundane, not spiritual, Prophet Muhammad brilliantly achieves.

During the preparation for the battle of Mu’tah for example, Prophet Muhammad’s demonstrated core features of modern management theory: Important vs. Necessary; and Effectiveness vs. Efficiency.

The battle of Mu’tah came about upon learning that Governor king of Busra in Greater Syria, Amr al Ghassani humiliated and assassin the messenger of the Prophet to Hercules, the Emperor of Rome. The slaying of convoys was a violation the standards in the protection of messengers. Killing a messenger was considered a crime and uncivil act.

Prophet Muhammad announced his intentions about the expedition to Mu’ta to punish the killer. He asked the volunteers to assemble, the next morning, after the dawn prayer, at a given location north of Medina, where he would join them after the Friday’s noon congregational prayer.

The next day, when he arrived at the assemblage place, the Prophet looked for one of his knights by the name Abu Talha. Abu Talha was a great

knight with a loud voice on the battlefield. Abu Talha’s sound is equal to a thousand men. But Abu Talhah was not among the 3000 or so worries assembled.

After a short while, as Abu Talhah arrived at the assembly, and the Prophet Muhammad asked him why was he not among the assembled warriors? His response was “I wanted to get the reward of the Friday’s congregational prayer, then join the army.” The Prophet’s face turned red and said to him: “Do you know what the difference between you and those who assembled before you is? He said a mid-morning worth. The Prophet’s response was, “By the One Who’s in His hand is my soul, the difference between you and those who came before you is greater than the distance between the east and the west.” An expression used to indicate a vast distance between two choices of rewards.

What is essential to the Prophet is the profitable outcome for the event, which in this case is a victory on the battlefield. The presence of a grand Knight like Abu Talha among the worriers can make a significant impact on the warriors moral and readiness, that would affect the outcome of the battle.

Personal profitability in congregational prayer, in any way, should not take precedence over the common good of the community.

Modern management recognizes Prophet Muhammad’s way same as the current principles of the goals of profitability and effectivity in the distribution of resources and talents.

Farsightedness and Rationality. 

A landmark reconciliatory treaty finally turned Quraysh’s currents of violence around. The Prophet Muhammad had to pass over the state of Arab’s tuff pre-Islamic Jahili mental preset. Jahiliya, defined by Karen Armstrong, is an acute sensitivity to honor and prestige; the tendency to violence and retaliation and of being too proud to surrender or reconsider a matter differently.

The story of the Hudaybiyah peace treaty started when the Prophet set-out from Medina to Mecca with 1400 people, intending to perform the Minor Pilgrimage in Mecca, known as Umrah.

Unruly opposed his rightful visit; the Meccan leaders blocked his route with 50 riders. However, the Prophet rerouted the caravan through rugged and rough canyons to avoid a fight and bloodshed, despite the overweening force of 1400 people.  He could quickly obtain victory with the 50 riders. But, it seemingly sounds like a victory based on bloodshed, is not even on the mind.

So as the Muslims avoided an encounter with Quraysh, and were nearing Mecca, they camped at a place called al Hudaybiyah, where the Prophet Muhammad made a historical move resulting in a peace treaty with the Meccans Quraysh tribes. As soon as he dismounted his ride, he proclaimed:

“By He whom my soul is in His hand, I will not refuse a time-framed reconciliatory plan with Quraysh, as long as it does not transgress the prohibitions set by God.” Al Nihaya, 2/48 Seerah Volume 2, page 99.

The Quraysh Meccan leaders rejected Muhammad’s unpopular approach of reconciliation. In overcoming the pre-established mindsets, he embraced passion, enduring persistent Quraysh’s intimidation, with a big heart and far vision.

On two separate occasions, Quraysh sent 20 and later 80 of its men respectively in the dark to attack the Muslims in their camp. Quraysh captured men of both disruptions, released back to Quraysh unharmed. The Prophet insisted, no violence or bloodshed. The fruit of this peaceful position made a dent to some of the leaders of Quraysh, who send an intermediary committee to meet with the Prophet. The Prophet re-assured Quraysh of his intent of Umra and offered his reconciliation:

“We have come to fight no one. We have come to conduct Umrah. War has exhausted, drained and harmed Quraysh. If Quraysh is willing to accept, I will extend them a plan for truce bound by time, provided Quraysh respects the prohibitions of God, and interfere not between the Bedouin tribes and me.” Seerah, v2 101.

Quraysh’s response was: “No, if you attempt to enter Mecca, our men, like lions, with strong temptation to fight.”

Keeping cool, the Prophet was not intimidated. In the course of the next several days, Prophet Muhammad modified his approach by staging out a reception matching the personality of Quraysh’s next envoy. Since these ambassadors are distinguishable and considerable weight.

The next Quraysh messenger was al-Hulath bin Alqamah. A-Hulath was the leader of Ahhbash people living outside of Mecca. Al-Ahhbash had allied with Quraysh. Al-Ahhbash are to defend Mecca in times of war, and in return, Quraysh is to give the Ahhbash the privilege to serve the pilgrims.

When the prophet learned that al-Hulath was approaching the Muslim camp, he told his companions: “al-Hulath bin Alqamah is from the people who praise God,” and he directed them to graze the animals of sacrifice close to him.

When al-Hulath saw the Muslims, all dressed in the pilgrim white garbs and the animals of sacrifice grazing by them; he was not only convinced of the Muslims’ true intent of rituals but also realized that Quraysh had breached the agreement with him by refusing the pilgrims entry into Mecca. He returned to Quraysh without even meeting the Prophet. He addressed Quraysh saying:

“O people of Quraysh, by God, our alliance with you based on permitting pilgrims into mecca, preventing block them. Are you disallowing Muhammad and his people from entering the House of God? By the One whom Hulath’s soul in His hand you are to allow Muhammad to do what he has come for, or I will call upon all Ahhbash to rebel against you and break our alliance.”

Quraysh cannot afford to lose their line of defense. So they asked al-Hulath to stand by, and that they are working to solve the matter with Muhammad.

“Be patient; we will resolve this matter with Muhammad in a manner that would please all of us.”

The stage reception of al-Hulath seemed to make a dent in Quraysh’s firm stand against reconciliation. Discontented, Quraysh sent another prominent envoy, a tribal leader of Thaqeef, of the city of al-Ta’iff.  Urwah ibn Masoud al-Thaqafi,

Urwah amongst his people was like a king in his entourage. Urwah’s reception stage dressed differently. His reception was made of several of the Prophet’s companions, as an entourage, some were acting as guards, while others served as counselors, yet others as observers. Urwa’s message was far more severe in its rejection of Muslims performing the Umra rituals. Urwah himself, demeaningly intimidate the Prophet by attempting on pulling his beard, not realizing the high emotions and love his companions have for the Prophet. With a quick move, the guards intercepted. “You will have no arm, should attempt your move it again.” Was their response.

The meeting was stalled for the noontime prayer, during which the Prophet made an ablution. Some of his companions, showing their reference to the Prophet took his abolition water for themselves as a sign of blessing. The Prophet, again, offered his peace initiative with Quraysh to Urwah to convey to Quraysh.

Urwah’s negotiation experience with the Prophet was echoed in his address to Quraysh:

“Oh, leaders of Quraysh: I visited Caesar in his castle and Hercules in his kingdom and Negus among his people, but, by God, I have never seen a king among his people loved as much as Muhammad amongst his companions. By God, they will not allow an atom of harm reach him. I advise you to reconsider your position with Muhammad.”

Urwa, the great leader of Thaqeef, seems to have a change of mind and convection of Muhammad and his companions. Urwa’s convection though angered some,  but put more pressure on Quraysh leaders to negotiate a reconciliation.

For the new faintly softer stance of Quraysh, the Prophet sent his envoy. However, Quraysh attacked the envoy and killed his camel. The Prophet sent another envoy, a prominent Qurayshi one, Uthman Ibn Affan, so he may not be executed.

Uthman did not come back in the expected time and presumed killed. The possible death of Uthman summons the entire Muslim camp to give the Prophet Muhammad a pledge to fight Quraysh. Uthman was not killed but imprisoned and released. Quraysh reaction to the Muslim’s pledge, however, deemed higher pressure to negotiate.

Failed to make Muslims fight, turned away people from visiting the Holly site, mounting pressure, Quraysh, finally sent the Muslims a negotiator, Suhail ibn Amr.  Seerah 106,

Upon seeing the new envoy Suhail, the Prophet was gratified, telling his companions “I see relief; Quraysh has sent its negotiator Suhail ibn Amr.”

Next, an unprecedented Prophet compromise and reconciliation with Quraysh took place to the dismay of his close companions. Against all the odds of hardened mindsets, framed around the old jahili “tendency to violence and retaliation and of being too proud to surrender or reconsider a matter differently,” 

After long hours of hue and cries, the final negotiation conditions the Prophet and Suhail agreed on were:

-Truce between Quraysh and the Muslims for ten years

-Muslims return to Medina without conducting the Umra—A disappointing loss of the visit to the Sacred House, which was the sole purpose of this chaotic venture.
-Muslims, however,  can return the following year to conduct the ritual.
-Meccans who convert to Islam must be returned to Mecca, but Quraysh is not obligated to reciprocate for Muslims defecting to Mecca.
-Quraysh to release the Arab tribes from previous treaties with Quraysh, and to allow the same to choose alliance from either the Muslim or the Quraysh camps.

For the pilgrims, the treaty conditions were demoralizing. Pilgrims, cannot fight and cannot be visiting the Sacred House of God. Their dream devastated. Karen Armstrong portrays the Muslims condition.

“Mutiny was in the air. The fragile solidarity that had united the pilgrims throughout this dangerous expedition was shattered….. Umar [A prominent leader, who became the second Caliph] leaped to his feet and strode over to Abu Bakr [another prominent leader, who became the first Caliph]. “Are we not Muslims and they polytheists?” he demanded. “Why should we agree to what is demeaning to our religion?” Abu Bakr was also disturbed, but managed to reply that, in spite of everything, he still had faith in the Prophet.” Pg 127

“When he looked at the stunned, miserable faces of the pilgrims, Muhammad had to tell them that they must accept the terms of the treaty because it was inspiration from Allah….

The atmosphere became even more strained when the Muslims heard the wordings of the treaty. Muhammad summoned Ali to write to his dictation, and when he began with the usual Muslim formula—“In the name of Allah, the Lord of mercy, the Giver of mercy—Suhayl objected. The Quraysh had always found these attributes of Allah somewhat feeble, so he insisted that Muhammad begin with the more conventional formula: “In thy name, O Allah.” To the horror of the Muslims, Muhammad agreed without demur.

Worse was to follow, Muhammad continued: “This is the treaty that Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, has agreed with Suhayl ibn Amr.” Again Suhayl interrupted. If he had believed that Muhammad was God’s prophet, he argued, reasonably enough, he would not have fought him all these years. He asked that Muhammad simply use his own name and that of his father in the usual way. Ali had already written down the words “the Messenger of God,” and told Muhammad that he simply could not bring himself to excise them, so the Prophet held out his hand for the pen, asked Ali to point to the words on the parchment, and crossed them out himself. He continued: “this is what Muhammad ibn Abdullah has agreed with Suhayl ibn Amr.”

At this extremely difficult juncture, just as the treaty was being signed, Suhayl’s son, Abu Jandal, burst onto the scene. He had converted to Islam, but Suhayl had locked him up in the family house in order to prevent him making the hijra [migration] to Medina. Now, however, he had managed to escape and arrived triumphantly to join the Muslims at Hudaybiyah, dragging his fetters behind him. Suhayl smashed his fist into son’s face, grabbed his chains, and turned to Muhammad. Would he keep his word and return this renegade to his lawful guardian? Muhammad did not falter, even though Abu Jandal screamed in anguish as Suhayl dragged him back to Mecca: Am I to be returned to the polytheists that they may entice me from my religion, Oh Muslims?”

[Pilgrims watching in dejection, Abu Jandal made their murky water even murkier,] “and for Umar,

this was the last straw…Yet again, he jumped to his feet and yelled at the man he had followed so loyally for twelve years. Was he not God’s messenger? Were not the Muslims right and their enemies wrong? Had not Muhammad assured them that they would pray again at the Kabaa?

‘This was all true Muhammad replied mildly,’ but had he promised that they would return to the Haram [The Sacred House of God] this year? Umar remained grimly silent, so Muhammad continued firmly: “I am God’s messenger. I will not go against the commandments, and He will not make me the loser.”

Even though he was bitterly perplexed, Umar subsided and reluctantly put his hand to the treaty. But the pilgrims were still furious, and there was a dangerous moment when they seemed about to rebel.

Muhammad announced that, even though they had not reached the Kabah, they would complete the pilgrimage right there at Hudaybiyah: the Muslims must shave their heads and sacrifice their camels, just as they would if they were in the heart of Mecca. There was absolute silence, and the pilgrims stared grimly back at Muhammad, tacitly refusing to obey.

In the despair, the Prophet retreated to his tent. What on earth could he do? He asked [his wife] Umu Salamah. She judged the situation correctly. Muhammad should go out and, without uttering another word, sacrifice the camel that he had consecrated to Allah. It was precisely the right decision.

The spectacular bloodletting broke through the torpor of depression, and immediately the men fell over themselves to sacrifice their own camels and shaved each other’s heads with such zeal that Umu Salamah said later that she thought they would inflict moral wounds in their pious frenzy.”

Muhammad’s display of flexibility, diplomacy, changing of his mind, and accepting what they perceived as humiliating conditions, all such reconciliations, proved, in the sight of God, “a great victory.” Not long after the treaty was signed, a Heavenly Revelation endorsing Prophet  Muhammad’s move, Sura of al-Fath (the Opening of the Gates of Victory). 48:1

“Verily! (O Prophet) We have opened for you the gates of victory,… It is He who sent down the sakinah, tranquility into the hearts of the believers that they would increase in faith along with their [present] faith. And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth, and ever is Allah Knowing and Wise.”

The treaty was not a temporary victory, but it opened the gates to the peace and stability Muslims were deprived of for the last 18 years. Civilization requires peacetime, social and economic stability, and to this ending Prophet Muhammad, avoided violence, primarily within a civil, at-peace community.

Peace can accomplish far more than violence would. Consider the following:

-Muslims now display their faith in calm and warm atmospheres.

-Quraysh can no longer control the Bedouin tribes. Tribes can freely interact with Muslims.

A significant number of people entered Islam. “more than double as many entered Islam than ever before.”

Acts of violence are only destructive tools. Diplomacy, negotiation, and reconciliation are better means for making a change.

One lease expected result is that the condition Muslim thought was humiliating to accept, turned out harming Quraysh for the benefit of Muslims. Those Qurayshis who accepted Islam, but could not join the Muslim in Medina, Escaped their parents to an area by the Red Sea. There, with their large number disrupted and threatened Quraysh trading caravans.
The frustrated, Quraysh wrote to Muhammad to remove the condition for turning away Qurayshis who embrace Islam and to bring to Medina those gathered at the Read Sea. The Prophet could easily deny Quraysh’s request. Instead, he readily accepted the plea and wrote the Red Sea group leader to join him in Medina with the rest of Muslims there.

That alone speaks a lot about Muhammad’s peaceful, compassionate and merciful soul? Muhammad knows that incurring violence is encroaching on the rights of people to peace and progress.

Muhammad’s Actions of such magnitude are what moved leaders, historians, writers, philosophers, poets, and others to elevate him to higher ground. “If greatness of purpose, the smallness of means, and astounding results are the three criteria of human genius, who could dare to compare any great man in modern history with Muhammad? The most famous men created arms, laws and empires only. They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which often crumbled before their eyes. This man moved not only armies, legislations, empires, peoples and dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs, and souls . . . his forbearance in victory, his ambition, which was entirely devoted to one idea and in no manner striving for an empire; his endless prayers, his mystic conversations with God, his death and his triumph after death; all these attest not to an imposter but to a firm conviction which gave him the power to restore a dogma. This dogma was twofold, the unity of God and the immateriality of God; the former telling what God is, the latter what God is not.

Philosopher, Orator, Apostle, Legislator, Warrior, Conqueror of Ideas, Restorer of Rational beliefs… The founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may ask, is there any man greater than he?

Alphonse de La Martaine ‘Historie de la Turquie’, v. ii, Paris, 1854

ref 2 p 164

 


Recommended Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *